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Arrow Relative Clauses




RELATIVE CLAUSES

INTRODUCTION


Relative clause, bir ismi tanımlayan cümledir. Ancak tek başına kullanılamaz. Bir temel cümleye bağlı olarak tanımladığı isimden sonra gelir. Bir ismi tanımladığı için relative clause "adjective clause" biçiminde de isimlendirilebilir.

Sıfat tanımladığı isimden önce gelir. Relative clause ise tanımladığı isimden sonra gelir.
The student who is the best in the classroom is Ayşe. (relative clause)
The best student in the classroom is Ayşe. (adjective)

The money which was stolen from the bank hasn't been found yet. (relative clause)
The stolen money hasn't been found yet. (adjective)

Relative clause'lar, tanımlayan (defining) ve tanımlamayan (non-defining) biçiminde ikiye ayrılır. Defining relative clause, bir ismi tanımlayarak diğerlerinden ayırt etmemizi sağlar. "The man" dediğimiz zaman karşımızdaki kişi hangi adamdan söz ettiğimizi anlayamaz. Ancak, "the man who is standing at the corner" (köşede duran adam) ifadesinde "the man" artık belli bir kişi durumuna geçmiştir.

Non-defining relative clause, zaten tanımlanmış bir isimden sonra gelir. "My father" dediğimiz zaman, karşımızdaki kişi kimden söz edeceğimizi zaten anlamış durumdadır. Eğer biz bu ismi bir daha tanımlıyorsak bu non-defining relative clause'dur. Yani o isim hakkında fazladan bilgi veren bir cümleciktir: "my father, who lives in. Germany..." (Almanya'da oturan babam....)

The man who will come to see you tomorrow wants to do business with you. (Defining)
Yarın seni görmeye gelecek olan adam seninle iş yapmak istiyor.

Mr. Jones, who will come to see you tomorrow, wants to do business with you. (Non-defining)
Yarın seni görmeye gelecek olan Mr. Jones seninle iş yapmak istiyor.



l- DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES

1-1 RELATIVE PRONOUNS AS SUBJECT OF THE CLAUSE


Tanımlayacağımız isim, tanımlayan cümlede özne durumundaysa, onun yerine kullanabileceğimiz sözcükler who, that ve which dir. Who, sadece insanlar için. which bütün cansız varlıklar ve hayvanlar için, that ise hepsi için kullanılabilir. "Crowd, audience, class" gibi grup isimleri, insanlardan oluşmalarına rağmen, eğer kurumu kastediyorsak, tekil bir fiille that ya da which kullanmayı gerektirir. Ancak bu kurumu oluşturan bireyleri kastediyorsak, çoğul bir fiille who kullanılır ki bu kullanım defining relative clause için pek yaygın değildir.

A staff is inevitably inefficient. It is not well-trained.
A staff which/that is not well-trained is inevitably inefficient.

The staff are calling for a strike.
They are dissatisfied with their conditions.

The staff, who are dissatisfied with their conditions, are calling for a strike.

I congratulated the student. She got the highest mark.
I congratulated the student who got the highest mark.
that got the highest mark.


Can you repair the chair? It is in the study room.
Can you repair the chair which is in the study room?
that is in the study room?

Relative clause tanımladığı isimden sonra gelir. Bu nedenle, tanımlayacağımız isim temel cümlenin öznesi ise, relative clause özne ile yüklemin arasında yer alır.

The student is happy. She got the highest mark on the test.
The student who got the highest mark on the test is happy .
that got the highest mark on the test

The chair is broken. It is in the study room.
The chair which is in the study room is broken.
that is in the study room

Bazen tanımladığımız isme ait başka sözcükler olabilir. Bu durumda relative clause, bu sözcüklerden sonra gelir.

There is someone at the door. He wants to see you.
There is someone at the door who wants to see you.
(Kapıda sizinle görüşmek isteyen biri var.)

Who, that ve which'den sonra gelen fiilin tekil ya da çoğul olması tanımladığı isme bağlıdır. Eğer isim tekil ya da sayılamaz ise tekil bir fiil; çoğul bir isim ise çoğul bir fiil kullanılır.

The person who lives next to us is an engineer.
The people who live next to us are very friendly.
The plate which is on the counter is dirty.
The plates which are on the counter are dirty.
The milk which is in the bottle is for the baby.

Relative clause ile temel cümlenin tense'i farklı zamanlara ait olabilir.

The man who was run over by a truck yesterday is in the intensive care unit now.
I don't think the chair which was broken yesterday can be repaired.

Ancak, bazı durumlarda, tense uyuşması gerekebilir. Örneğin "l congratulated the student .... '' ifadesini "who gets the highest mark" biçiminde tamamlayamayız. Çünkü "fcutiodım" diyebilmemiz için tanımladığımız ismin bir şey yapmış olması gerekir. Yani o da past time'a aittir.

I congratulated the student who got the highest mark.
I helped the woman who had difficulty carrying the heavy shopping bags.
They will give a prize to the person who wins the competition.
They gave a prize to the person who won the competition.


1-2 RELATIVE PRONOUNS AS THE OBJECT OF A VERB

Tanımlayacağımız isim. tanımlayan cümlede nesne durumunda ise insanlar için who, whom, that; cansız varlıklar, hayvanlar ve grup isimleri için which, that kullanılır.

The applicant is suitable for the job. We interviewed her yesterday.
The applicant who we interviewed yesterday is suitable for the job.
whom we interviewed yesterday is suitable for the job.
that we interviewed yesterday is suitable for the job.


The book is very interesting. I bought it last week.
The book which I bought last week is very interesting.
that I bought last week is very interesting.

Tanımlayacağımız isim, tanımlayan cümlede nesne durumunda ise who, whom, that ve which
relative sözcüklerini kullanmayabiliriz.

The applicant we interviewed yesterday is suitable for the job.
The book I bought last week is very interesting.

The man was a sales representative. We met him yesterday.
The man who we met yesterday was a sales representative.
whom we met yesterday was a sales representative.
that we met yesterday was a sales representative.
Ø we met yesterday was a sales representative.

The flat should have at least three rooms. I'll rent it.
The fiat that I'll rent should have at least three rooms.
which I'll rent should have at least three rooms.
Ø I'll rent should have at least three rooms.


1-3 RELATIVE PRONOUNS AS THE OBJECT OF A PREPOSITION
Tanımlayacağımız isim, tanımlayan cümlede bir preposition'ın nesnesi durumunda kullanılmışsa, bu preposition relative clause'da da kullanılır.

The man wasn't satisfied with the deal. I bought this car from him.
The man who I bought this car from wasn't satisfied with the deal.
whom I bought this car from wasn't satisfied with the deal.
that I bought this car from wasn't satisfied with the deal.
Ø I bought this car from wasn't satisfied with the deal.

The case is very important. I have told you about it.
The case which I told you about is very important.
that I told you about is very important.
Ø I told you about is very important.

Tanımladığımız isme ait preposition'ı, relative sözcüğünden önce kullanırsak, insanlar için sadece "whom", nesneler için. ise sadece "which" kullanılır.

The man from whom I bought this car wasn't satisfied with the deal.
The case about which I told you is very important.

The girl is very messy. I'm sharing the flat with her.
The girl who I'm sharing the flat with is very messy.
whom I'm sharing the flat with is very messy.
that I'm sharing the flat with is very messy.
Ø I'm sharing the flat with is very messy.
The girl with whom I'm sharing the flat is very messy.

The chair doesn't look safe. You are sitting on it.
The chair which you are sitting on doesn't look safe.
that you are sitting on doesn't look safe.
Ø you are sitting on doesn't look safe.
The chair on which you are sitting doesn't look safe.


1-4 USING "WHOSE" AND "OF WHICH"

Tanımladığımız isim, tanımlayan cümlede iyelik bildiriyorsa, hem insanlar hem de nesneler için "whose" kullanılır.

Do you know the man? His car was stolen.
Do you know the man whose car was stolen?

The man is our next-door neighbour. I want to buy his car.
The man whose car I want to buy is our next-door neighbour.

Can you repair the chair? Its legs are broken.
Can you repair the chair whose legs are broken?

The book was my friend's. I accidentally tore its cover.
The book whose cover I accidentally tore was my friend's.

Nesneler için "whose" yerine "of which" de kullanabiliriz. Ancak "of which" in defining relative clause'larda kullanımı çok enderdir. Daha çok non-defining relative clause'lrvrda kullanılır.

This is the machine. I described its properties.
This is the machine whose properties I described.
This is the machine the properties of which I described.

The houses are being repaired now. Their roofs were damaged during the last storm.
The houses whose roofs were damaged during the last storm are being repaired now.

I can't open the door. Its handle is broken.
I can't open the door whose handle is broken.

Eğer tanımladığımız iyelik bildiren ismin kendine ait bir preposition1! varsa, bu preposition'ı relative clause'un sonunda veya "whose"un önünde kullanabiliriz.

This is the man. Jake is going out with his daughter.
This is the man whose daughter Jake is going out with.
with whose daughter Jake is going out.

Do you remember the man? I told you about his love affairs.
Do you remember the man whose love affairs I told you about?
about whose love affairs I told you?

"Of which"li yapıda preposition," of'un önündeki isimden önce yer alır.

The mountain is a part of the mountain range Bozdağ. You see snow on its top.
The mountain on the top of which/on whose top you see snow is a part of the mountain range Bozdağ.

1-5 USING WHERE
"WHERE"Tanımladığımız isim. tanımlayan cümlede yer bildiriyorsa (dolaylı tümleç ise) relative sözcüğü olarak "where" kullanabiliriz.

I liked the seaside resort. We spent our holiday there (in that town) last summer.
I liked the seaside resort where we spent our holiday last summer.

Don't clean the room today. My son is studying in that room.
Don't clean the room today where my son is studying.

Yer bildiren bir ismi tanımlarken which ve that kullanabiliriz ya da hiçbir relative sözcüğü kullanmadan, relative clause getirebiliriz. Ancak, which ve that kullandığımızda ya da boş bıraktığımızda, o isme ait preposition'ı mutlaka kullanmak zorundayız.

I liked the seaside resort which we spent our holiday in last summer.
that we spent our holiday in last summer.
Ø we spent our holiday in last summer.
in which we spent our holiday last summer.

Don't clean the room today which my son is studying in.
that my son is studying in.
Ø my son is studying in.
in which my son is studying.

This is the restaurant. I usually eat lunch there (at this restaurant.)
This is the restaurant which I usually eat lunch at.
that I usually eat lunch at.
Ø I usually eat lunch at.
at which I usually eat lunch.
This is the restaurant where I usually eat lunch.

Bir yer ismi, tanımlayan cümlede özne ya da nesne durumundaysa, onu tanımlarken "where" kullanamayız. Where kullanabilmemiz için o ismin, "at the cinema, to the theatre, in the country, etc." gibi yer belirtmesi gerekir.

I like the house. It has a large garden. (It - subject)
I like the house which has a large garden.
that has a large garden.

I liked the house. We saw it yesterday, (it - object)
I liked the house which we saw yesterday.
that we saw yesterday.
Ø we saw yesterday.

I like the house. I was born there, (in that house - adverb of place)
I like the house where I was born.
which I was born in.
that I was born in.
Ø I was born in.
in which 1 was born.


1-6 USING "WHEN"

Tanımladığımız isim. tanımlayan cümlede "on that day. in that year, at that hour, etc." biçiminde bir zaman belirtiyorsa, when, which, that kullanabilir ya da bir relative sözcüğü kullanmadan relative clause getirebiliriz. Bunlardan sadece which, preposition kullanmayı gerektirir. Preposition which'in önünde kullanılır: on which, at which, etc.

1923 is the year. The Republic of Turkey was founded then, (in that year)
1923 is the year when the Republic of Turkey was founded.
that the Republic of Turkey was founded.
Ø the Republic of Turkey was founded.
in which the Republic of Turkey was founded.
(1923. Türkiye Cumhuriyetinin kurulduğu yıldır.)


Saturday is the day. We usually go shopping then, (on that day)
Saturday is the day when we usually go shopping.
that we usually go shopping.
Ø we usually go shopping.
on which we usually go shopping.

1-7 USING "WHY"
"Reason" sözcüğünden sonra neden ifade eden bir cümlecik getiriyorsak, why, that, ya da for which kullanabiliriz. Ya da hiçbirini kullanmadan direk relative clause getirebiliriz.

The reason why we are holding this meeting is to seek solutions to our recent problems.
that we are holding this meeting
Ø we are holding this meeting
for which we are holding this meeting

Reason, explanation gibi isimleri, "..... ileri sürdüğü neden, ..... yaptığı açıklama" gibi
ifadeler için kullanıyorsak, "why" kullanamayız. Bu anlamda onları diğer cansız varlıklar gibi
düşünüp which, that kullanabilir ya da her ikisini de kaldırabiliriz.

The reason that he gave us for the delay frustrated us all.
which he gave us for the delay
Ø he gave us for the delay

The explanations that the teacher made on the subject confused us.
which the teacher made on the subject
Ø the teacher made on the subject

1-8 USING RELATIVE CLAUSES TO MODIFY PRONOUNS


Bir relative clause everybody, someone, anybody, etc. gibi belgisiz zamirleri tanımlayabilir. Eğer tanımladığımız zamir, tanımlayan cümlede özne durumundaysa who ya da that kullanılır. Nesne durumundaysa, who, whom ya da that kullanabiliriz ama genellikle relative sözcüğü kullanılmaz.

Everybody who came to the party was elegantly dressed.
that came to the party
Everybody whom I met said that he was dishonest.
who I met that I met
Ø I met

There is someone whom I want you to meet.
who I want you to meet.
that I want you to meet.
Ø I want you to meet.

Anything, something, nothing gibi sözcükleri tanımlarken which çok ender kullanılır. Onun yerine that tercih edilir. Eğer tanımlanan sözcük nesne durumundaysa relative sözcüğü kullanmamak daha yaygındır.

Everything hat was said at the debate was true.
Everything that he said at the debate was true.
Ø he said at the debate was true.

Anything that has been found can be helpful to prove his innocence.
Anything that you have found can be helpful to prove his innocence.
Ø you have found can be helpful to prove his innocence.



Bir relative clause /, we, they, etc. gibi zamirleri tanımlayabilir.

It was I who objected to the proposal.
that objected to the proposal, (daha çok "who" kullanılır.) Öneriye karşı çıkan bendim.
It's they who want to cancel the meeting,
that want to cancel the meeting.
Toplantıyı iptal etmek isteyen onlar.

Those sözcüğünü tanımlarken insanlar için daha çok who, nesneler için ise which kullanılır ancak her ikisi için that de kullanabiliriz.

Only the people who/that are members can enter the club.
Only those who/that are members can enter the club.

Bu iki cümlenin Türkçe'ye çevirisine dikkat ediniz. Birinci cümleyi "Kulübe, sadece üye olan . kişiler girebilir." ; ikinci cümleyi ise "Kulübe sadece üye olanlar girebilir." biçiminde çevirebiliriz.

The students who/that want to come on the picnic should inform me well in advance.
Those who/that want to come on the picnic should inform me well in advance.
(Pikniğe gelmek isteyen öğrenciler.......... Pikniğe gelmek isteyenler......)

- Shall I bring all the books?
- No, I need only those which/that are on the top shelf.


2- NON-DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES
Zaten tanımlanmış, bilinen bir ismi niteleyen cümleye non-defining relative clause denir. Bu isimleri şu şekilde gruplandırabiliriz.
a) Proper nouns (özel isimler):
The person who lives above us is an engineer. (defining)
Mr. Smith, who lives above us, is an engineer, (non-defining)
A country which is by the sea is usually a tourist attraction, (defining)
Turkey, which is surrounded by the sea on three sides, is of strategic importance, (non-defining)

b) Nouns with preceding modifiers (Başka niteleme sözcükleriyle tanımlanmış isimler):
A mother who is very permissive with her children doesn't necessarily mean a good mother, (defining)
My mother, who lives in Germany now. was moderately permissive with us. (non-defining)
Any bus which comes here already full doesn't stop at this bus-stop, (defining)
This bus, which usually comes here already full, goes direct to Kadıköy, (non-defining)
The book which is on the table belongs to me. (defining)
That green book, which is on the table, belongs to me. (non-defining)

Bir isim kendinden sonra gelen bazı sözcüklerle de tanımlanmış olabilir.

The man who was working at the shop was friendly, (defining)
The man at the shop, who gave my son a sweet, was friendly, (non-defining)
The table which is in the kitchen needs repairing, (defining)
The table in the kitchen, which we usually have our breakfast on. Needs repairing, (non-defining)

c) Coal, rice, milk, Jlower,_ etc. gibi isimler genel anlamda kullanıldığı zaman, zaten herkesçe bilinen isimler olduğu için. non-defining relative clause alır.
Flowers, which almost everybody likes, need special care to grow. (general-non-defining)
The flowers which are sold at that florist's are usually fresh. (specific-defining)
Milk, which is essential for everybody of all ages, should be boiled well. (general-non-defining)
The milk which we get from that dairy is really delicious.(specific-defining)

Non-defining relative clause ile that hiç bir durumda kullanılmaz. Diğer relative sözcükleri who, whom, which, whose, where ve when kullanılır. Non-defining relative clause, eğer araya giriyorsa iki virgülle, cümlenin sonunda yer alıyorsa bir virgülle temel cümleden ayrılır.
Mr. Smith, who works at the same company as me, is very fond of children.
I can rely on Mr. Smith, who works at the same company as me.


2-1 SUBJECT POSITION
Özne durumunda, insanlar için sadece who, nesneler için sadece which kullanabiliriz.

My father lives in Germany. He is over sixty now.
My father, who is over sixty now, lives in Germany.
Our television set has become erratic. It was bought eight years ago.
Our television set, which was bought eight years ago, has become erratic.


2-2 OBJECT POSITION
Nesne durumunda, insanlar için who ya da whom, cansız varlıklar ve hayvanlar için which kullanabiliriz. Who, whom ve which sözcüklerini atamayız. Mutlaka kullanmamız gerekir.

My father lives in Germany. You met him yesterday.
My father, whom you met yesterday, lives in Germany. ,
who you met yesterday,

Our television set has become erratic. We bought it eight years ago.
Our television set, which we bought eight years ago, has become erratic.

Eğer isim, bir preposiüon'ın nesnesi durumunda ise, preposition'ı relative clause'un sonunda kullanırsak who ya da whom, başında kullanırsak sadece whom kullanabiliriz. Nesneler için ise yine which kullanılır.

Mr Smith is an honest person. I've been working with him for live years.
Mr Smith, whom I've been working with for five years, is an honest person.
, who I've been working with for five years, is an honest person.
, with whom I've been working for five years, is an honest person.
My car is beginning to cause trouble. I had saved up for it for two years.
My car, which 1 had saved up for for two years, is beginning to cause trouble. ,
for which I had saved up for two years,


2-3 POSSESSIVE
Bütün isimler için whose kullanabiliriz. Cansız varlıklar için "of which" de kullanabiliriz ama bu kullanım pek yaygın değildir.

My classmate Susan doesn't want to be a doctor. Her parents are both doctors.
My classmate Susan, whose parents are both doctors, doesn't want to be a doctor.

Their house cost them too much money. They painted its exterior pink.
Their house, whose exterior they painted pink, cost them too much money. ,
the exterior of which they painted pink,

Possessive durumdaki isme ait bir preposition varsa, bu preposition'ı whose'un önünde ya da relative clause'un sonunda kullanabiliriz.

Mr Clark is leaving hospital tomorrow. The doctor had some doubts about his recovery.
Mr Clark, whose recovery the doctor had some doubts about, is leaving hospital tomorrow.
, about whose recovery the doctor had some doubts,

Uludağ is a famous ski resort. You can always see snow on its top.
Uludağ, whose top you can always see snow on, is a famous ski resort.
, on whose top you can always see snow,
, on the top of which you can always see snow,


2-4 "WHERE" IN NON-DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES

Yer bildiren sözcükler için, non-defining relative clause'larda da where kullanabiliriz.

Istanbul has many problems to solve. More than ten million people live there. (in Istanbul)
Istanbul, where more than ten million people live, has ıruıny problems to solve.
, which more than ten million people live in,
, in which more than ten million people live,

Eğer bir yer ismi. tanımlayan cümlede özne ya da nesne dururnundaysa where kullanamayız. Sadece which kullanabiliriz.

Salihli is located in the west of Turkey. It is my hometown. (It — Subject)
Salihli, which is my hometown, is located in the west of Turkey.
Salihli is located in the west of Turkey. I like it very much, (it — object)
Salihli, which I like very much, is located in the west of Turkey.

Salihli is located in the west of Turkey. I was born there, (in Salihli — adverb of place)
Salihli, where I was born, is located in the west of Turkey.
, which I was born in,
, in which I was born,

2-5 USING EXPRESSIONS OF QUANTITY IN RELATIVE CLAUSES

One of. all of, most of, none of, etc. gibi ifadeleri, hem insanları hem de nesneleri tanımlarken kullanabiliriz. Bu ifadeleri relative clause'da insanlar için one of whom, some of whom, most of whom. etc. biçiminde, nesneler için ise one of which, some of which, most of^vhich, etc. biçiminde kullanırız. Eğer tanımladığımız isim possessive dururnundaysa. one of whose, some of whose, etc. gibi ifadeler kullanabiliriz.

Sally has two very close friends. Both of them are interested in music like her.
Sally has two very close friends, both of whom are interested in music like her.
Sally has very nice parents. I like both of them very much.
Sally has very nice parents, both of whom I like very much.

I want to introduce you to my friend Sally. One of her biggest interests is classical music.
I want to introduce you to my friend Sally, one of whose biggest interests is classical music.

She bought many things at the store. Only a few of them were necessary.
She bought many things at the store, only a few of which were necessary.

There are many films on this week. I'm quite interested in two of them.
There are many films on this week, two of which I'm quite interested in.

I watched a film on TV last night. Some of its scenes were disgusting.
I watched a film on TV last night, some of whose scenes were disgusting.


2-6 USING "WHICH" TO MODIFY A WHOLE SENTENCE

Bazen bir relative clause tek bir sözcüğü değil de bütün bir cümleyi tammlayabilir. Bu durumda relative sözcüğü olarak sadece which kullanılır. Relative clause temel cümlenin sonuna eklenir ve bir virgülle cümleden ayrılır.

She got a rather low grade on the test. That surprised me.
She got a rather low grade on the test, which surprised me.
Testten çok düşük bir not aldı ki bu da beni şaşırttı.

Its impossible for us to catch the train. This will be very bad.
It's impossible for us to catch the train, which will be very bad.
Trene yetişmemiz imkansız ki bu da çok kötü olacak.

Bu örneklerde that ve this, birinci cümlenin yerine kullanılmıştır. Birinci cümlenin yerine kullandığımız this ya da that, bazen ikinci cümlenin ortalarında yer alabilir. Bunu relaüve clause'a çevirirken which virgülden hemen sonra gelmek durumundadır.

They invited me to their wedding. I appreciated that very much.
They invited me to their wedding, which I appreciated very much.
Beni düğünlerine davet ettiler ki bu da çok hoşuma gitti.

Bu yapıyla ifade ettiğimiz cümleleri genellikle başka şekillerde de ifade edebiliriz.

He helped me. That was kind of him.
He helped me. which was kind of him. (=It was kind of him to help me.)
They lent me a large sum. That was generous of them.
They lent me a large sum. which was generous of them. (=It was generous of them to lend me a large sum.)

3- RELATIVE CLAUSE, NOUN CLAUSE OR ADVERBIAL CLAUSE

Relative clause'larda kullandığımız that, which, who, when, where gibi sözcükleri noun claus ve adverb clause ile de kullanabiliriz. Aradaki fark, şu örneklerle incefeyelîm

I don't know the city where he lives.
(noun) (relative clause)
I don't know where he lives.
(verb) (noun clause)

Örneklerde de gördüğümüz gibi. relaüve clause daima bir isimden sonra, noun clause ise bir fiilden sonra gelir. Örnekteki relative clause'u başka biçimlerde de ifade edebiliriz.

I don't know the city where he lives.
That he lives in
which he lives in.
Ø he lives in.
in which he lives.

Noun clause'u bir tek biçimde ifade edebiliriz,

l don't know where he lives.
They got married on a day when I was abroad.
(noun) (relative clause)
(Benim yurt dışında olduğum bir günde evlendiler.)


They got married when I was abroad.
(verb) (adverbial clause)
(Ben yurt dışındayken evlendiler.)

I want to know the students who/that are coming withjig.
(noun) (relative clause)
(Bizimle gelecek öğrencileri öğrenmek istiyorum.)

What bir isimden sonra gelmez. Genellikle bir fiilden sonra gelir ya da özne durumundaki bir noun clause'un başında bulunur. What, the thing that/the things that' anlamındadır.

I don't know what he bought. (Ne aldığını bilmiyorum.) (verb) (noun clause)
1 don't know thejhing that hejjought. (Aldığı şeyi bilmiyorum.) (noun] (relative clause)
What he said wasn't so important, (noun clause)
The thing that he said wasn't so important, (relative clause)
Burada that yerine which de kullanılabilir; ama. that kullanımı daha yaygındır.

4- REDUCTION OF RELATIVE CLAUSES
Bir relative clause'u, anlamını hiç bozmadan, cümle olmaktan çıkarıp sözcük öbeği biçiminde kısaltabiliriz.

The boy who is running towards us is my son.
The boy running towards us is my son.

The money which was stolen from the bank has been recovered.
The money stolen from the bank has been recovered.

Bir relative clause'u kisaltabiimemiz için, who, that, which sözcüklerinin relative clause'da özne durumunda bulunması gerekir. Yani. relative clause'un bu sözcüklerden başka bir öznesinin olmaması gerekir. Eğer varsa, o cümlede kısaltma yapamayız.

The boy who you met yesterday is my son. (kısaltılamaz)
whom you met yesterday that
you met yesterday
Ø you met yesterday

The money which I lost last week has been recovered, (kısaltılamaz)
that I lost last week
Ø I lost last week

Bir relative clause'u şu şekillerde kısaltabiliriz:

a) Present participle: the boy running, the people waiting for the bus. etc.

Eğer relative clause'un tense'i, present ve past continuous, simple present ya da simple past tense ve yüklemi active ise kısaltmada present participle kullanılır.

The man who lives upstairs is making too much noise.
The man living upstairs is making too much noise.

The woman who is talking to the teacher is my mother.
The woman talking to the teacher is my mother.

The customers who wanted to see the manager looked very angry.
The customers wanting to see the manager looked very angry.

The children who were playing in the rain seemed very happy.
The children playing in the rain seemed very happy.

I need a bottle which holds two litres of liquid.
I need a bottle holding two litres of liquid.

The tree which blocked the road was blown down by the storm.
The tree blocking the road was blown down by the storm.

Aynı kuralları göz önüne alarak, non-defining relative clause'larda da kısaltma yapabiliriz. Kısaltılan bölümü yine virgülle cümlenin devamından ayırmamız gerekir.

Her parents, who expect her to get a high grade, will be disappointed if she can't.
Her parents, expecting her to get a high grade, will be disappointed if she can't.

Mary, who wanted to make an impression on the teacher, studied very hard. Mary,
wanting to make an impression on the teacher, studied very hard.
My son. who is playing with children over there, is very sensitive.
My son, playing with children over there, is very sensitive.

b) Past participle: the money stolen from the bank, the explanations made by the Prime Minister, etc. Relative clause'un yüklemi passive ise kısaltmada past participle kullanılır.

The child who was punished by the teacher was standing in the corner.
The child punished by the teacher was standing in the corner.

I like to listen to songs which are sung in Turkish.
I like to listen to songs sung in Turkish.

Her husband, who was promoted to a higher position, will get more money.
Her husband, promoted to a higher position, will get more money.

c) Be + adjective phrase

The girl who is happy with the result is smiling.
The girl happy with the result is smiling.

Anyone who is interested in animals can join our club.
Anyone interested in animals can join our club.

I need a box which is big enough to hold these books.
I need a box big enough to hold these books.

My car, which was much cheaper than yours, hasn't caused me any trouble.
My car much cheaper than yours, hasn't caused me any trouble.

d) Be + prepositional phrase

The books which are on the top shelf are difficult to reach.
The books on the top shelf are difficult to reach.

The people who were along both sides of the road were watching the parade.
The people along both sides of the road were watching the parade.

The students who are in the canteen must not be aware of the time.
The students in the canteen must not be aware of the time.


e) To + infinitive

The first, the second, the last,- the only gibi ifadelerden sonra, bazen de superlative'lerden sonra relative clause "to do" biçiminde kısaltılabilir.

Yesterday, I was the last person who left the office.
Yesterday, I was the last person to leave the office.
(Dün bürodan en son ayrılan kişi bendim.)

I'm usually the first person who leaves the office.
I'm usually the first person to leave the office.
(Genellikle bürodan ilk ayrılan kişi ben olurum.)

Eğer relative clause'un yükJemi passive ise. kısaltmada passive infinitive "to be done" kullanılır.

The only man that was seen there that day was Mr Smith.
The only man to be seen there that day was Mr Smith.
(O gün orada görülen tek kişi Mr Smith idi.)

The best route that can be followed is through the woods.
The best route to be followed is through the woods.
(İzlenecek en iyi yol koruluktan geçendir.)

To + infinitive biçimindeki kısaltmayı something, anything, nothing, someone, anybody, etc gibi sözcüklerden sonra ve zorunluluk, gereklilik ifade ederken pek çok isimden sonra kullanabiliriz.

Would you like something that you can read?
Would you like something to read?

It's cold outside. I need something that I can put on.
I need something to put on.

There was nothing that we could eat.
There was nothing to eat.

I have a lot of work that I must do.
I have a lot of work to do.

Today, I will have many clients that I must deal with.
Today, I will have many clients to deal with.

We need a larger box that We can put these books in.
We need a larger box to put these books in.

The children need a playground that they can play in.
The children need a playground to play in.

f) Appositive Phrase
Appositive phrase, bir isme açıklık kazandırmak için, isimden sonra kullanılan bir isim ya da zamir grubudur. Appositive phrase, fazladan bilgi verdiği için, virgülle cümlenin devamından ayrılır.

Mr Jones, who is the headmaster of our school, is a very strict man.
Mr Jones, the headmaster of our school, is a very strict man.

İsmet İnönü, who was the second President of Turkey, was a contemporary of Atatürk's.
İsmet İnönü, the second President of Turkey, was a contemporary of Atatürk's.


Ankara, which is the capital city of Turkey, is better.organized than İstanbul.
Ankara, the capital city of Turkey, is better organized than Istanbul.

Basketball, which is my favourite sport, attracts less interest than football.
Basketball, my favourite sport, attracts less interest than football.

g) A Perfect Participial Phrase

Relative clause'un tense'i simple past, present ve past perfect tense ise kısaltmada active eylemler için having done, passive eylemler için having been done kullanabiliriz.

The students who attended our course last year will get a discount this year.
The students having attended our course last year will get a discount this year.
(Geçen yıl kursumuza devam etmiş olan öğrencilere bu yıl indirim yapılacaktır.)

The students who have finished their work can go out.
The students having finished their work can go out.
(Ödevini bitiren /bitirmiş olan öğrenciler dışarı çıkabilir.)

Mary, who had finished her work, left the classroom after the teacher's announcement.
Mary, having finished her work, left the classroom after the teacher's announcement.
(İşini bitiren/bitirmiş olan Mary öğretmenin duyurusundan sonra sınıftan çıktı.)

The passengers, who had travelled more than eight hours, felt exhausted.
The passengers, having travelled more than eight hours, felt exhausted.
(Sekiz saatten fazla yolculuk yapmış olan yolcular bitkin düştüler.)

Non-defining relative phrase, bazen tanımladığı ismin önünde ya da cümlenin sonunda yer alabilir. Özellikle I, he, she, they gibi kişi zamirlerini tanımlıyorsa, bu zamirin önünde yer alır.

She, who was once interested in rock music, now listens to classical.
Once interested in rock music, she now listens to classical.
(Bir zamanlar rock müziğe ilgi duyan o şimdi klasikleri dinliyor.)

Today's people, who aren't thinking of the future generations, are cruelly polluting the earth.
Today's people, not thinking of the future generations, are cruelly polluting the earth.
Not thinking of the future generations, today's people are cruelly polluting the earth.
Today's people are cruelly polluting the earth, not thinking of the future generations.
(Gelecek nesilleri düşünmeyen günümüz insanı dünyayı zalimce kirletiyor.)


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Standart Cevap: Relative Clauses




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