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Arrow 154 soruluk test




Find the sentence for the blank that covers the meaning
1- Though generally marked by brief attention periods, nearly all 5-8 year old boys love to fish. Considering the quiet patience successful fishing demands, this is a stunning phenomenon. ………… But, unfortunately, this restrained anticipation is not always rewarded with a catch.
A)Fishing is a popular sport because anyone can engage in it, regardless of age, sex or income
B)Not every boy, of course, will fit the pattern - some may quickly get bored with the activity
C)Perhaps it is the constant possibility of catching something which keeps them interested
D)The term still fishing refers to the technique of catching fish without moving from one spot
E)The fisherman must always be prepared to leap from his quiet waiting into action

2-……………. . We know, for example, that at noon in New York, it will always be five in the afternoon in London. But this is actually a recent development, only 150 years ago, every town and hamlet set their own clocks: judging noon by the local apex of the sun's daily climb. It was the arrival of the railroad which made a coordinated system necessary, as a time difference of only a few minutes between cities might cause a collision.
A)It is not always easy to keep track of the time in this global economy
B)The world is divided into 24 time zones, and the width of each is about 15 degrees longitude
C)Without accurate time keeping, there could be no modern world
D)The railroad brought many more changes than just faster transportation
E)Today almost all of us are aware of the worldwide system of time zones

3-…………. . Because of this lack of foresight, there will be huge problems after the last day of the year 1999 if no solutions have been found by then. Many computers will be unable to interpret dates past that date. For example, the year 2000, shown as "00," will be read as 1900.
A)To save memory, computer programmers originally represented years by the last two digits
B)For all their apparent complexity, digital computers are basically simple machines
C)The cost of fixing the world’s computers in time for the millennium may approach $1 trillion
D)Programs, also called software, are detailed sequences of instructions directing the computer hardware to perform operations
E)Programmers are hard at work fixing the so-called "millennium bug" before it causes damage

4- ……… : "four bedrooms"; "lots of storage space"; "close to my work"; "low rent"; "a quiet neighbourhood"; "a big yard"; "a scenic view"; and so on. This is because to most people, housing quality obviously means more than simply shelter.
A)Many people prefer to have the front door open into an entrance hallway
B)Up to the 1930s, it was considered essential to have a separate dining room in a house
C)When people are asked what kind of housing they want, the question evokes a variety of answers
D)A vital feature of any house is its accessibility to the occupant's place of work, to stores and schools
E)The quality of housing available to an individual, a couple or a larger family ultimately depends on their Income

5- The first practical photographic process that produced lasting pictures was invented by Louis Jacques-Mande Daguerre, a French painter and physicist. For his invention, he was appointed an officer of the Legion of Honor, and the French government published his process and granted him 6.000 francs annually. …………., and were among the earliest photographic portraits.
A)George Eastman was another pioneer in the field of photography
B)He used this method to take many photographs of his wife
C)He took pictures of many of the most famous people in France
D)Prints made by this process were known as daguerreotypes
E)The process has not been used for well over one hundred years, however

6-Teaching children to swim at an early age is not only something the kids will enjoy, but vital to their general safety. With so many backyard swimming pools, rivers and reservoirs scattered about urban areas, the chances a child may accidentally fall into a body of water are high …….. .
A)Thus, it's best to prepare for such an event by making sure your child will have the skills to save himself
B)These are all good places to have a swim, so it is important that children learn how and enjoy the opportunities
C)Even people who know how to swim can be at risk of drowning
D)A good swimmer will be able to avoid such accidents
E)These situations, however, are usually not dangerous: In fact. They can be funny

7- While the invention of e-mail certainly has many advantages, the world surely miss the pleasure of old fashioned letters in the mail. A hand written letter has a personal touch an electronic message could never achieve. Each personal letter is unique: the paper, the handwriting, the stamps. And, when they arrive, it's as though they have a history. …….. . But e-mails lack this. They don't feel as though they have travelled anywhere. They just appear as if they've come out of thin air.
A)Computers are used daily by many individuals for the main purposes of sending and receiving e-mail
B)A posted letter feels like a real, physical connection between the sender and receiver
C)The older a posted letter is, the more precious it becomes
D)It takes posted letters longer to arrive, but it is most definitely worth the wait
E)You know a posted letter has made a long, and perhaps eventful, journey to your door

8- In human beings, instinct reveals itself in such things as self-protection in the face of attack. ………. . They, for instance, build their nests entirely by instinct. More dramatic, perhaps, is the instinct that compels many species of bird to migrate. How this process works remains a mystery.
A)The eagle is known to have a sharp sense of instinct
B)In other animals, however, instinct plays a much larger role, as in the case of birds
C)Instinct requires no instruction, and even the smallest animal is instinctive
D)Birds, insects, mammals - all animal life forms rely on their instinct.
E)This is an inherited form of behaviour, common to all forms of animal

9- The mosquito is an insect belonging to the fly family and found in most parts of the world. Its eggs are laid and hatched in stagnant water. ……… . Likewise, another type is responsible for yellow fever.
A)The eggs are often laid in swamps or marshes
B)Like many insects, they can transmit diseases
C)One species of tropical mosquito transmits malaria
D)Mosquitoes should be controlled to prevent disease
E)Mosquito-transmitted diseases differ in their geographic distribution, specific causes and effects

10- ………. .Figure skating includes jumps and spins performed to music and the free skating event allows freedom of expression and interpretation. Speed skating involves races of various distances from 500 m to 10.000 m. Ice skating is also included in the Winter Olympics.
A)The Winter Olympics are held every four years and include a variety of events
B)People can enjoy many different types of winter sports, from skiing to skating
C)Ordinary people may think it extremely difficult to perform all those figures on ice
D)There are two kinds of competitive ice-skating: figure skating and speed skating
E)Skaters who have previously studied dance find that it helps them enormously

11-Fear of the number 13 has long been a superstition. Its roots are religious. At the Last Supper of Jesus and his disciples, there were 13 persons, one of whom was Judas, the traitor. Today many tall buildings omit a numbered 13th floor, skipping instead from 12 to 14, …………Nevertheless, the trick seems to be enough to reassure people that they are safe from bad luck.

A) Avoidance of black cats has religious origins as well
B)This does not make any difference for the blind, though
C) Seeing a black cat is also believed to bring bad luck
D) In such buildings, accidents and have been shown to be less frequent
E) This practice obviously can't really eliminate the thirteenth floor

12- Lightships are aids to navigation, similar in function to lighthouses. They came into use in the 17th century in places where it was not practical to build a lighthouse. Modern lightships are steel vessels about 35 metres long ………… . Some lightships, however, those equipped with automatic devices, require no full time crew on board.

A)They are most suitable for sheltered waters where high-powered illumination is not necessary
B)Usually they are manned by a crew of about seven, and carry all the equipment standard to a lighthouse
C)Because lightships are often located in remote places, the power used to operate them is usually derived from diesel generators
D)To increase light intensity and focus it into a beam, mirrors and other reflectors came into use in the 18th century
E)Modern lighthouses have reflectors, as well as lenses and prisms, to carry the light farther

13-People of all ages in nearly every country where there is mountainous terrain enjoy the unique appeal of skiing. It is one of the few sports that enable people to move at high rates of speed without any power-producing device. ………………With the world's top athletes reaching speeds over 80 mph in the downhill, it is no wonder serious injuries are common.

A)Yet female skiers are actually less liable to injury than males, although they get hurt occasionally
B)Actually, it is rather miraculous that fatal injuries are extremely rare
C)In its simplest form, skiing is sliding down a snow-covered slope on a Pair of long, slim runners called skis
D)However, it can be a very dangerous sport, particularly at the professional level
E)Just recently American skier Peekabo Street suffered a broken leg during a competition

14-In recent years, "supermarkets" and the even larger "hypermarkets" have spread across the landscape……….. . Not everyone agrees, though, that they are a good thing. Those who object to these vast stores point to increased traffic caused not only by delivery trucks but also by cars travelling to them. They are also blamed for the destruction of local business and the resulting decline in town centres.

A)They are extremely inconvenient for people who do not have cars
B)As competition has become keener, supermarkets have added specialty shops, like small bakeries into their stores
C)Everything today seems to be called "super-", so the word is losing any real meaning
D)A variation on the supermarket is the box store, which sells products directly out of cartons
E)They are popular because they provide a great variety of products, and are generally cheaper than traditional shops

15- In the bronze age, the time of the Trojan Wars, ships seldom ventured out of sight of land because they had large crews to man the oars, and little space for provisions or sleeping. Nor were they able to withstand heavy weather, and their captains did not know how to find their way without landmarks to guide them. ………….. . Thus, the crew would cook, eat and sleep ashore.
A) The Polynesians were far ahead of the Europeans, being able to find their way guided by the stars
B) Occasionally a storm would take them far from land, and then, it was regarded as a disaster
C) For these reasons, they had to stop in a harbour very frequently
D) This means that they were often able to cover huge distances in a short time
E) However, because they had oars, they could still progress in light or strong winds

16-Typing is the most basic skill of the information-based economy. Those with typing skills, which can be acquired through a relatively basic course, are virtually assured of employment, though the pay may be low. ……….. . This, obviously, requires more extensive education.
A) The newest printing method in the industry is computerised, or electronic, printing
B) Combined with knowledge of computer programs, good typing skills can get one a high paying job
C) The electronic typewriter is similar in appearance to the manual machines
D) Typing can also be very useful in your personal life, helping with letters and reports
E) Yet many people may think that a low paying job is better than being unemployed

17-In recent years there has been a lot of discussion about how to improve the American educational system, because the shocking fact is that many young Americans leave schools even without the ability to read or write. One idea has been to try to copy from Japan, where students always score highly on international tests. ……… . Traditionally, for example, Japanese respect their teachers greatly, whereas in the United States, teachers are not highly regarded.
A) If this works, it could save money as well, since class sizes are much larger in Japan
B) Yet, this idea ignores the simple fact that the Japanese educational success is largely based on cultural standards
C) Parts of Britain, especially the inner city areas, have also experienced a decline in educational standards
D) One flaw in this argument is that Japan is a largely homogeneous society, while the United States is increasingly multi-cultural
E) Perhaps it is simply because the Japanese language is so difficult to read that the students need more self-discipline

18-…………You may feel perfectly fine until it rises to a certain extent. But when your cholesterol sneaks up above a desirable level, you are at risk of having a heart attack, heart disease, or a stroke. what can you do? In fact, once you are aware of the problem, it is quite easy to keep your cholesterol level under control through a carefully followed diet plan.
A)If you eat a lot of fast foods, you can't say that you are eating healthily
B)Most people choose to eat food for taste rather than for their health
C)Cholesterol testing usually requires no preparation, but sometimes you may have to go hungry beforehand
D)It is not difficult to lose weight provided you apply a little self-discipline
E)A high cholesterol level is something you cannot see or hear

19-Most babies begin to use a few sounds that mean something when they are about a year old. However, there are perfectly normal children who wait months longer. .......... . A friendly, outgoing baby just naturally wants to talk young. The quiet, observer type seems to want to spend a long time just watching the world go by before he or she wants to say anything about it.
A)If a baby doesn't start talking at about one year old, it is probably not very bright
B)It's now accepted that foreign languages should be taught to children from the age of five
C)It seems to be largely a matter of character and personality
D)Some children start walking without ever learning to crawl
E)It does not matter because soon they will be talking so much that parents will wish they would be quiet

20-.......... The fall of snow in Tokyo provides a good example for this. There, one or two centimetres of snow is enough to shut down the entire city. Yet just a couple of hours away on the other side of the mountains, everyone lives with two or three metres of snow for most of the winter, and life goes on as usual.
A)Many Japanese think theirs is the only country in the world to have four seasons
B)Though most people take their holidays in the summer a lot of people prefer a winter holiday
C)Skiing is now one of the world's fastest growing sports
D)It is strange the way people have difficulty in coping with what they are not used to
E)Though Tokyo winters are cold, the weather is normally clear and dry

21-Mobile phones are used by one in five people in Britain. They are an accepted part of life in the 1990s. However, mobile phones are now beginning to suffer from an image problem after a series of scare stories linking them with cancer and short-term memory loss. Researchers are rushing to complete studies of the effects of mobiles on human brain tissue . ………… . The truth is that nobody really knows as yet because research has not been completed.
A)They are probably even more popular in the Far East than in Britain and the US.
B)Manufacturers are trying to give their product a more stylish image to detract from the scare stories
C)One wonders how people communicated in the days before the invention of the mobile phone
D)But once' people have got used to their comfort, it is so difficult to do without them
E)There is now the question of how safe mobile phones are

22-When we look at the night sky. It seems that the planets are always changing their positions while the stars appear to be fixed. ………… . One star, for example, though it actually moves quite fast, would take over two hundred years to move a distance equal to the diameter of the Earth's moon. It is only when we compare the records ancient peoples kept of the skies with the present day that we can see the stars really do move.
A)Planets also seem to have a steady light, while stars twinkle
B)In fact, stars are always moving, but they are so far away that we cannot see any change in their position
C)Astronomers can only estimate the total number of stars in the universe
D)Distance cannot be learned from a star's magnitude alone, because its magnitude depends upon its size and brightness as well
E)Talking about star signs is often a good way to begin a conversation with a stranger

23- Several years ago, two British backpackers were among the forty-seven passengers who survived the hijack and crash of a flight from Addis Ababa to Nairobi. They never saw their hijackers, and did not know if they were killed in the crash or were among the survivors. The travellers were both severely injured…………, so they went on from India to Australia, then to South America, as they had initially planned.
A)It would be ironic, of course, if the hijackers turned out to have survived after all
B)They were a little discouraged as they knew that hijacking like this were quite common in the region
C)But the two young women decided to complete their travels once their wounds had healed
D)It was quite a big disaster, though, because there were 127 people on board, of whom only 47 survived
E)This experience alone would have been enough to stop them from travelling further

24-In today’s society, where many occupations do not involve physical activity, staying healthy is often difficult,……. .However, maintaining one's health is not all that easy. Although health- conscious people may exercise or diet seriously for a certain length of time, many of them lose motivation and stop.
A)Many people suffer from ailments that would have been unknown to our ancestors
B)People who are healthy achieve this in a number of different ways
C)A little common sense seems to be all that is needed in order to remain healthy
D)Doctors are overwhelmed with people whose complaints they sometimes have trouble taking seriously
E)The effects of stress on the body were hardly acknowledged until quite recently

25-We live in an era when television has become the national pastime. Since the invention of the TV, people have been spending more free time watching it than doing anything else. Some TV addicts defend this by claiming that people can learn a great deal from watching TV…….. .They also contend that, with cable and satellite companies increasing their share of the market, it is now a waste of money as well.
A)Until recently we could watch major sporting events free of charge and without the need for special equipment
B)The heavyweight boxing championship is an event that is no longer on live television
C)In fact some of the d6cumentaries and nature programs are very educational
D)Others argue that watching television simply robs people of their valuable time
E)Educational programs are often on at odd hours, so you need a video to record them

26-…… . Of them, a well-trained doctor will select the best that will cure a particular illness of a patient. Sometimes there are some points to consider even within the same method. The use of an antibiotic such as penicillin may be the best treatment for a particular infectious disease, for example, but it would not be the ideal therapy for someone allergic to penicillin. Then he would have to choose another antibiotic to treat the disease.
A) Medicine has changed greatly in the last 100 years
B) Doctors are not equally distributed throughout a country
C) Early medicine did not have the professional status it now does
D) Certain types of laboratory work can be done by medical technicians
E) There are many methods of treating disease

27-A number of farmers and gardeners today have taken up what is called “organic” farming and gardening, which means growing plants and vegetables without using man-made chemicals. A good example of how this works is the use of ladybugs to control aphids,………..By introducing ladybugs into their gardens, however, which love to eat aphids, farmers can get rid of these harmful bugs without causing any harm to the good ones.
A) Another friendly insect, the honeybee, is the most efficient way of spreading pollen
B) Children love to play with ladybugs, and never hurt them
C) People also say that fruit and vegetables grown organically taste better
D) There are many kinds of aphids, but most feed exclusively on a particular crop, weed or tree
E) Using an insecticide would also kill harmless insects alongside them

28-In 1846, an Italian chemist named Asciano Sobrero produced the first nitro-glycerine. When he heated a drop of it, it produced a large explosion. ……. .Of course his noble gesture did no good at all. Other scientists followed up his research, and high explosives were being used in warfare by the end of the 19th century.
A)He immediately realised that this chemical could be used to produce weapons of mass destruction and stopped his research
B)Realising its potential for warfare, he was intelligent enough to make a fortune from it
C)His research into how to produce this chemical in large quantities makes him one of history's most evil scientists
D)It is dreadful to think that about 100 gallons of gas are produced by only one ounce of nitro-glycerine
E)This, of course, was nothing compared to the explosives that would be developed in the 20th century

29-If we think of the Neanderthal man at all, we tend to think of an ape-like creature, ugly and low in intelligence. In fact this distant ancestor of ours was more intelligent and accomplished than is generally acknowledged. He made tools such as stone knives, flint balls and scrapers that were not only useful, but also beautiful. It was also the Neanderthal man who first developed the use of mineral colours, the first sign of mankind's inherent artistic sense. …………This suggests that there were the beginnings of a complex religious system.
A)Some of their paintings were scenes of hunting and other aspects of daily life
B)Remains of these early humans were first found in 1856 in the Neander Valley in Germany
C)These factors point out Just how ski fled materially this underrated ancestor of ours actually was
D)Neanderthal settlements continued to exist side by side with later groups such as the Cro-magnon man
E)Perhaps most surprising Is the ceremonial way In which the dead were buried

30-…….. because, after centuries of scientific stagnation, there were suddenly a number of new inventions and discoveries. It was early in the century, for example, that Galileo perfected the telescope and reported on his observations of the heavenly bodies. Still early in the century, William Harvey discovered the way in which blood circulates in humans and other animals. But possibly the greatest scientist of the century was Isaac Newton, who discovered the laws of gravity and those governing physics and light.
A) It is impossible to imagine astronomy without the telescope
B) The individual inventive effort of past years is now largely replaced by organised research
C) It was not until the invention of the steam engine that Industrial Revolution became a real possibility
D) For the scientist, seventeenth century Europe must have been an exciting time and place
E) Many of the "discoveries" that the West took credit for had long been known to the Arabs

31-In most traditional societies, nothing goes to waste. For example, some nomadic societies live almost entirely on the products of their animals. They burn the dried dung for fuel, drink the milk, clothe themselves in the hides and furs, and eat the meat. …………… . One of the more shocking statistics is that every five years, the average westerner throws away an amount of waste equal to the weight of the Statue of Liberty.
A)Some extreme environmentalists feel that we should all go back to living in that way
B)By contrast, in western consumer-oriented societies, sometimes more is thrown away than is used
C)Furthermore, since they are always on the move, they are careful not to over-use the land
D)In spite of this way of life that is in harmony with nature, nomads are being forced to settle down in many countries
E)On the other hand, most of today's societies manufacture almost everything they use

32-…………..for his father spoke only English, Gaelic was James's mother tongue. English always felt flat and harsh, like daylight after night-fishing, but his mother made sure he was as proficient as a little prince, for they were part of the British Empire and he had his way to make.
A)Like his father, James spoke a number of languages, including Gaelic and French
B)It used to make his father angry when James and his mother spoke Gaelic together
C)When it came to the ability for speaking languages, James took after his father
D)In colonial Nova Scotia, which was settled by Scots, Gaelic was the local language
E)When James was angry at his mother, he used to speak in Gaelic to his father

33-The social scientist Talcott Parsons developed the "Role-Model Theory", which meant a boy would follow his father for his role model, while a girl would follow her mother. It soon became apparent, however, that this theory was inadequate. In the 1970s, for example, when young girls whose mothers were doctors were surveyed, they would often declare that doctors were boys and nurses were girls. ………… .These examples showed that most children looked outside the home for their role models.
A)On the other hand, most radical feminists seemed to have mothers who were housewives
B)Often such outrageous figures as Madonna become role models
C)Socially most people are members of a group they perceive as "family"
D)Children inherit two separate bloodlines at birth- the mother's and the father's
E)In contrast, all boys wanted to be just like their fathers

34-As far as mankind is concerned, the zebra is one of the most useless animals in existence. ………. . Though they run wild and have much the same diet as edible animals like the eland and gazelle, their meat tastes too awful to be eaten. Though their stripped hide is beautiful to look at, it is not strong or durable enough to be put to any use.
A) While the zebra lives in Africa, there is a similar animal, in the Tibetan Plateau
B) Horses, on the other hand, have been domesticated since before recorded history
C) They are shaped like donkeys, but refuse to be trained, and simply will not work
D) Since all zoos have zebras, everyone knows what they look like
E) Even so, they are a big tourist attraction in the game parks of Africa
35-Cocoa is a product of Theobroma cacao, a small tree originally found in tropical America. It flowers directly from the trunk and branches, and has fruits containing 40-60 seeds. …………. . At the end of all these processes, raw or bitter chocolate is produced.
A)These seeds are the raw material from which chocolate is made
B)The ripe seeds are fermented, dried, roasted and ground to a paste
C)About 1 million tons of cocoa a year is produced in Africa and Brazil
D)In the 1800s, eating chocolate and powdered cocoa were developed
E)To make chocolate, cocoa butter has to be added to balance the sugar

36-…………. . It affects eight percent of men and one in two hundred and fifty women. It is particularly troublesome when individuals cannot distinguish between red and green - the colours of traffic lights.
A)Acute alcoholism is a serious problem in the northern part of Australia
B)The origins of the colours used in traffic signals is difficult to trace
C)While some people think green is a beautiful colour, others prefer red
D)Colour blindness is an inherited condition affecting the ability to see colours
E)Persistent headaches and blurred vision are symptoms that may indicate serious eye disorders

37- ……… . Both are derived from the Greek term for city-state and have to do with the administration and oversight of communities of people. Police operations vary from nation to nation. In some states, police forces arc highly militarised and nearly indistinguishable from the armed forces.
A)The words 'police' and 'politics' are related
B)Police forces are part of the criminal justice system
C)Interpol has caught thousands of international criminals
D)Many of the regulatory powers of government involve some kind of policing activity
E)Many countries have centralised, or national, police organisations

38-Janissaries were the elite troops of the Ottoman Army and were founded in the 14th century. ………. . From the 17th century onward, however, Muslims were recruited as well, and they became a powerful and influential force in the empire until they were massacred by Sultan Mahmud II in 1826.
A)The strong Islamic beliefs of the troops made them a powerful army
B)In the early 19th century, they tried to overthrow the reigning Sultan
C)The boys were chosen at a young age and taken away from their families
D)They lived in a special barracks inside' the walls of Topkapi Palace
E)Originally, they were recruited from Christian boys and captives of war

39-The Kani people belong to one of the poorest tribes in the southern Indian state of Kerala. These rain-forest dwellers live in fragile shacks. Each night they sleep with the fear that a passing herd of wild elephants could trample them to death. …………. . They believe that they are the descendants of the chief physician of the gods, and that his wisdom of healing has been passed down to them through the ages.
A)Elephants are not normally dangerous animals unless provoked
B)But even in poverty, the Kanis have not forgotten their mythical past
C)India has many such tribes with no traditions or even oral history
D)As you can imagine, this makes it hard to get a good night's sleep
E)It is interesting that, though largely Christian, Kerala had the world's first elected Communist government

40-…………. . By translating the results of scientific, experiments into mathematical terms, it is possible to develop assumptions and formulae for general application. Further experimentation is often suggested in this process. In this way, mathematics clarifies and furthers knowledge of the physical world.

A)The introduction of the decimal system into Europe greatly advanced the field of mathematics
B)Mathematics has become an essential tool in all sciences for the development of theory
C)Mathematics is the study of numbers and their logical relationships with each other
D)Though interesting in its own right, mathematics has few uses outside the realm of accounting
E)Arithmetic is the most ancient form of mathematics, and was known to the Egyptians

41-An overweight person beyond the age of forty, who has a family history of diabetes, fails in the high-risk category for contracting this disease. ………. . When both parents are diabetic, however, the risk is even higher, and some authorities believe all such children will be diabetic.

A)Diabetes may occur in a child under the age of ten, but most develop it at a later age
B)Diabetes occurs during the lifetime of 4 percent of women and 2 percent of men
C)Diabetes is diagnosed with a glucose-tolerance test
D)The correct diet is essential for all people with diabetes
E)A child born to one diabetic parent has a one-in-four chance of becoming diabetic

42-There is no trace of the violent event that happened on that cold winter's night over six months ago, as the meteorite came thundering down through the heavens. But then again, this place seems to be able to withstand a nuclear blast without any damage. …………, but we are determined to find it because we know it lies somewhere upon this great glacier of central Greenland.

A)The large, dense objects that survive the fall to the Earth are called meteorites
B)Greenland is subject to intense cold and terrible blizzards
C)A meteorite fr6m Mars that fell to the Earth 13,000 years ago was found in Antarctica
D)Glaciers flow from Greenland's icy mountains and discharge a billion tons of ice into the sea every year
E)The remnants of the meteorite could be hiding anywhere in this endless sea of ice and snow

43-…………… . The letters have no meaning, but in Morse code the combination has a pronounced rhythm which attracts immediate attention. All ships observe two silence periods every hour, listening on certain frequencies to ensure that any distress signal, however weak, will be picked up.
A)Letters were sent between various naval bodies on the subject of safety
B) S.O.S. is the international distress call for use in wireless telegraphy
C)The word 'Mayday,' is derived from the French and means 'Help me'
D)Distress signals are sent on 500-metre or 2000-metre wavelength
E)Sailors of all nationalities agree they will help anyone in trouble at sea

44-It is ironic that the great nuclear powers of the world, the United States and Russia, have made themselves crusaders against the further expansion of nuclear weaponry. They've already got the power, so naturally they have no interest in sharing their nuclear technology with other nations. ………. . Therefore, though their efforts are self-serving and thus do not deserve praise, in practice they must be supported.
A)However, the great powers themselves have taken significant steps towards reducing the nuclear threat
B)The real nuclear threat comes not from poor nations, but from the Russian and American stockpiles of nuclear missiles
C)Thus, the great powers should abandon their hypocrisy and stop interfering in the affairs of other nations
D)It is thus no ordinary person's best interest that the world see any decrease in the nuclear threat
E)Besides, nuclear bombs are good for no one. and they should all be dismantled straight-away

45-……………. . Cave paintings dating back 20,000 years depict forms of ritual dance. Every community has developed a style of tribal or folk dancing, closely related to music, usually of a magical or religious nature. The hypnotic power of certain types of dancing has been demonstrated, among others, by the Dervishes.
A)Cave paintings are one of our best sources of historical knowledge
B)Every religion expresses itself in a variety of different art forms
C)There is no doubt that dance involves a type of therapeutic power
D)Dancing is probably the oldest of all forms of human expressions
E)All cultures have managed to develop their own musical instruments

46-The Sues Canal represents the culmination of centuries of effort to enhance trade and expand the empires of Egypt by connecting the Red and Mediterranean Seas. …………, but its significance came from the fact that it was the only one to bypass the Nile as a means of connecting the two seas and to excavate across the Isthmus of Suez to provide a major shipping route between Europe and Asia.
A)At one stage, following by an outbreak of cholera, all the workers ran away
B)The Israelis entrenched themselves along the eastern bank of the canal
C)By this time the canal was full of sunken ships and sea traffic was paralysed
D)Two small fleets, one originating in Port Said and the other in Suez, met in Ismailia
E)The modem canal was by no means the first project of its kind

47-Orantgutans are like babies: playful, wide-eyed, and trusting. Genetically, the "men of the forest" as their name means in Malay, resemble humans more than any other animal on the Earth. ………. . Yet a combination of natural disasters and merciless hunting by humans now threatens this inoffensive near relative of ours.
A)Even today. not everyone has accepted Darwin's theories on evolution
B)Most people have only seen them in zoos
C)Some people would say that the, chimpanzee is actually closer to human beings
D)They stand next to us on the tree of life
E)A gorilla named Koko is famous for having learnt to communicate with humans using sign-language

48-The enduring Roman influence is reflected in contemporary language, literature, legal codes, government, architecture, medicine, sports. etc. ………… . Consider language for example. Fewer and fewer people today claim to know much Latin. And yet, go back to the first sentence of this paragraph. If we removed all the words drawn directly from Latin, that sentence would read: “The".
A)Ancient Greeks also had an enduring influence on Western civilisation
B)The great civilisations of India and China are older, but the West came into contact with them later
C)In the 3rd century AD, the capital of the Roman Empire moved from Rome to Constantinople
D)'The” is the most commonly used word in the English language
E)Much of it is so deeply embedded that we scarcely notice our debt to ancient Rome

49-John Lennon was murdered just before 11p.m. on the 8th December, 1980; outside the apartment building where he lived in New York City. He had just got out of a car and was walking toward the entrance when a voice called to him. When he turned around, he was shot five times, The killer, was 2-year~d Mark Chapman from Hawaii. ……… . It is said that he even believed that he was John Lennon.
A)He was a fan of Lennon, and had tried to imitate him in many ways
B)Lennon's music, though less consistent than when he was with the Beatles, continued to be popular
C)New York is one of the most dangerous cities in the world
D)It is remarkable how many famous people have been murdered in the United States
E)The Beatles had split up more than ten years before

50-…………. . Within a year, 100,000 people, only 8,000 of whom were women, had reached California. Homes, ~a and stores throughout the United States were abandoned as everyone rushed to California. By 1850, more than 50
ships were anchored in San Froncisco Bay, but many had been deserted by gold-hungry sailors. A few people became fabulously rich, but most left as poor as they came.
A)Gold is the most precious of metals, and throughout history people have longed for it
B)In 1848, gold was discovered in Sutter's Mill, near San Francisco, and the first great gold rush began
C)At the time of the California Gold Rush, the easiest way to reach San Francisco from the East Coast was by ship
D)San Francisco's football team is named after the people who came in 1849 hoping to find gold and strike it rich: 'The 49ers"
E)Every year thousands of Mexicans illegally cross the border from Mexico into southern California looking for work.

51-……………… . In addition to teaching the correct techniques, a qualified instructor will indoctrinate the beginner in the importance of skiing safely. If the skier is taught how to ski under control at all times and to follow the generally accepted rules of safety, the risk of causing injury to himself or to other skiers is greatly reduced.
A)Because short skis are easier to handle, they are often used, by beginners, while experienced skiers prefer longer ones
B)Chair lifts and other devices that transport skiers uphill have removed the need for tiring, time-consuming climbing
C)Each year thousands of beginners rush to hundreds of organised ski areas
D)In its simplest form, skiing is sliding down a snow-covered slope on a pair of long, slim runners called skis
E)The best way for a beginner to learn how to ski is to take lessons from a certified ski instructor

52-In strict terms, performing arts are those art forms, primarily theatre, dance and music, that result in a performance. ………, from classical opera and serious theatre to live variety entertainment, popular improvised theatre in the streets, and even rock concerts and professional wrestling.
A)Decorative arts, on the other hard, are art forms that have a primarily decorative rather than expressive or emotional purpose
B)The individual performing artist has always struggled to survive
C)Under their heading, however, can be placed an enormous number of forms and variations
D)Several playwrights of the late 19th and early 20th centuries prepared the way for modern realistic drama
E)Cabarets are small performance spaces in clubs and restaurants where solo artists perform

53-The olive is a small tree with narrow greyish –green leaves, cultivated from early times in the Mediterranean region. ………. , which is highly valued by many nutritionists today because of its benefits for health However, olives are also pickled for eating. Black olives are ripe, but green ones are pickled unripe, and treated in order to destroy their bitterness.
A)Olives do not taste at all nice when eaten fresh from the tree
B)These trees have been grown for their shade in many regions
C)The fruit of the olive tree is edible, once it has been pickled
D)These trees were cultivated originally for their lush crops
E)The most important product extracted from its fruit is the oil

54-……….. . The reason for this may be found in the large herds of reindeer that they breed, as the subsequent need for pasture In the Arctic area has necessitated constant movement. Even today, settlements are rarely permanent, although they are being increasingly affected by the Swedes and Finns among whom they live.

A)One may be surprised to learn that there are many Arctic animals
B)Life in the Arctic region does not offer much variety to the locals
C)Research shows that people living in the Arctic area are very fit
D)The inhabitants of Lapland are traditionally a nomadic people
E)Alcoholism is becoming an increasing problem in the Arctic area

55-In most modern industrial countries, including Japan, women are much less than half as likely to commit suicide. ………? Not at all. Psychiatric professionals are agreed that women are actually more likely to experience depression than men. In fact, statistics show that more women than men are treated for depression each year in hospitals.

A)Do the people involved in the field of mental health know the reason for this
B)Does this mean that women are happier and less prone to depression than men
C)Is this because men are less likely to express their feelings than women
D)What is it that causes this difference between men and women in mental health
E)Is the situation the same among the women of less industrialised countries

56-The average child will crawl at eight to ten months, walk alone at twelve to sixteen months and say a few words by the fifteenth month. ……… . Many children walk before they are a year old, and say words before they are fifteen months, and there are examples that first children speak earlier than subsequent children, and girls may speak sooner than boys.

A)However, individuals vary considerably
B)Children usually start school at age six
C)Size is determined by a variety of factors, though
D)The wisdom teeth appear in the late teens
E)And, surprisingly, the same development applies to children of all races

57-The speed of sound is generally placed at 1088 fret per second at sea level at 32F. However, it varies at other temperatures and in different media. …………. . Thus, if in air it travels a mile in 5 seconds, it does a mile under water in 1 second, and through iron in half a second.
A)When a plane breaks the sound barrier, it means it's flying faster than sound
B)The speed of sound can be measured using modern equipment
C)Sound travels faster in water than in air, and even faster in iron
D)We use the prefix Mach in order to describe supersonic speed
E)Any sound which is over 120 decibels is painful to the ear

58-…….. . The audience stood or sat in galleries on three sides of the stage, which was left open to the sky for the sake of light, as performances generally began at 2 p.m. At the back of the stage were the dressing rooms, and a small gallery. These theatres were generally owned by businessmen, or by companies of actors like that of Shakespeare.
A)Many modern theatres are breaking away from traditional theatre styles
B)One of the finest examples of a Renaissance theatre is the Teatro Olimpico
C)Elizabethan times brought the first permanent public theatres to England
D)Al present, there are approximately forty-eight major theatres in operation in London
E)The Globe, where Shakepeare's plays were first performed has been restored

59-There is a new5km bridge in Bangladesh, where everyone who crosses in a vehicle must pay a toll. In order to avoid paying, most bus passengers simply get off their buses and walk across. The man who has come up with the most novel solution to the toll problem is an enterprising cycle rickshaw driver. He paid his toll once, then stayed on the bridge, taking people across the river without ever paying the toll again. ………. . Once a group of politicians were so angry on being asked to pay the toll that they simply smashed the electronic equipment.
A)The bridge is so important because it connects the best agricultural land in the country with the capital, Dhaka
B)Cycle rickshaws are one of the most common forms, of public transport in Bangladesh
C)The advanced electronic technology used on the bridge may seem out of place in the rural nature of the surrounding countryside
D)The bridge has become an important political issue in Bangladesh
E)But it is not only the poor who object to paying the toll

60-The first known people of the many to settle the island of Malta were the Phoenicians, who reached it in about the 9th century B.C. …………….. . In succession, the island was then occupied by the Arabs, the Knights Hospitaler, the French, and most recently, the British. All of them have left their mark on the island, reflected in its culture, language and architecture.
A)Malta occupies a strategic location between Italy and North Africa
B)They were followed by the Romans
C)Its capital, Valetta, was important in Thomas Pynchon's cult novel 'V'
D)The Phoenicians, of course, came from the area called Lebanon today
E)Though Malta is a small island, it is far more important than its sire would lead us to believe

61-Spice, the most desired commodity of the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries, was the driving force of merchant seafaring. Portugal started trading with China in 1557, and spread its trade across Southeast Asia and India, where the greatest variety of spices were to be found. ………….. . The ships of these companies were called "East Indiamen" and were the biggest and best merchant ships for over two centuries.
A)Today, with modern transport, spices are easily obtainable and inexpensive
B)The British Navy became the strongest in the world from the time of the Napoleonic Wars
C)A series of naval wars were fought between Britain and Holland in the 17th century
D)The British East India Company was founded in 1600, and the Dutch East India Company in 1602
E)The development of the steam engine in 'the 19th century meant that tea could be shipped to Europe while it was still flesh

62-Most societies think that men are naturally suited to perform the most strenuous labour. ………… . For example, there was a kingdom in West Africa called Dahome, which used women as bodyguards and soldiers because they were believed to be especially fierce fighters. The Tasmanians, similarly, felt that women were as suited as men to the most dangerous of hunting tasks.
A)This belief has persisted, almost unchanged, to the present day
B)"Strenuous" labour usually meant farming or hunting
C)This has not always been a universally held belief, however
D)This, is probably why, throughout history, male prisoners have been killed, while women and children were sold as slaves
E)In some societies, inheritance is through the male line, while in others it is through the female line

63-Of all possible eating patterns, skipping breakfast and eating a big lunch is the worst. ………. . Your blood sugar and stored carbohydrates are low. The morning meal replaces the calories and nutrients you need to get you through the day. Calories are burnt up more quickly in the morning than at any other time of the day. Studies of school children have found that those who eat breakfast do better in school.
A)It's said by some that the best meal in England is breakfast and that it should be served three times a day
B)Breakfast is important because when you wake up in the morning, you have not eaten for eight to ten hours
C)A big lunch usually makes you sleepy, and thus affects your performance' negatively
D)Dinner is usually the main meal because the whole fancy, can relax together and talk about their day
E)On the other hand, many people complain that they don't have time for breakfast
64-………….. . Of course, it is only to be expected that they might over-react to their new freedoom, and it is probably better that their parents are not around to observe their behaviour. Normally, however, by their final year they'll have got over the fascination of living without parental control and learnt to conduct themselves in a mature and responsible manner. It is therefore arguable that the experience of university life is as important as the actual studies.
A)When young people go to university, it is often the first time they have lived away from home
B)Young people are inherently irresponsible and need to be supervised until they are ready to be parents themselves
C)Students often feel that, as educated people, they have a more valid point of view on society and its problems than do their elders
D)Many university students have part-time jobs, and this gives them a certain financial independence
E)One objection to the grant system in Britain is that it gives privileged young people what amounts to a three-year holiday

65-Charlotte, Emily and Anne Bronte were the novelist daughters of a country parson. Charlotte wrote Jane Eyre. Emily's most famous novel was Wuthering Heights, which she first published under the name Ellis Bell. ………., athough she was a talented writer too.
A)We don't know where they got their talent from
B)Anne did not achieve the fame of her two sisters
C)It is true that she never had any novels published
D)Charlotte was the oldest of the three sisters
E)Anne wrote several novels under her own name

66-For a number of years, radio telescopes have been trying to pick up signals from outer space, so far without success. There are, however, millions of possible radio frequencies, and there is no reason why a completely alien civilisation should not use a different type of communication, such as X-rays, or even a type of wave we have not yet discovered. ………… . For example, if we made contact with beings 300-light years away - relatively close as space distances go - by the time we had sent an answer and received their response, the earth would be 600 years older.
A)The most famous radio telescope of all is at Jodrel Bank in England
B)We may have discovered only a few of countless types of waves that could be used in this way
C)And then there is the problem of how to carry out contact over such vast distances
D)According to Einstein’s Theory of Relativity, it is impossible to travel faster than the speed of light
E)Science fiction writers have been speculating over the nature of alien beings for decades

67-In the United States, a large number of university students suffer from "student shock": severe depression stemming from inability to cope with student life. Universities have been trying a number of ways to help students cope with the pressures they face. Many universities are upgrading their psychological counselling centres. Additional staff are being hired, and experts are doing research to learn more about the psychological problems of university students. …………… . Finally, stress management workshops have now become common on university campuses.
A)A remarkable number of students become so depressed that they commit suicide
B)With such competition for good jobs, students are more nervous over good grades than ever before
C)The end of a relationship can be a large contributing factor to student shock
D)Also, older and more successful students are being trained to counsel their younger peers
E)In addition, some students should get proper jobs and learn what life is really like

68-It was in 1961 that John F. Kennedy, then President of the United States, gave the "go ahead" for his country to make the maximum effort to put a man on the moon before the end of the decade. ………….. . They were Americans Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin. A third astronaut, Michael Collins, remained aboard the command module, which continued to orbit the moon.
A)The launch of Sputnik in 1957 alerted Americans to the fact that the Soviets were well ahead in some scientific fields
B)Thus the first true men on the moon landed in its sea of tranquillity on 21st July, 1969
C)The first Americans to orbit the earth went in tiny cramped capsules, which look very primitive today
D)People struggling to feed themselves in developing countries might have wondered what the point of it all was
E)Tom Wolfe's book, The Right Stuff, documents the experiences of the first American astronauts

69-……….. . Known as fossil fuels, they took about 250 million years to form, and although new coal and oil are being formed in parts of the world, this happens very slowly, so the coal and oil now being extracted at an extremely fast rate are not being replaced. This means that alternative energy sources must be found and developed.
A)In many parts of the world it Is still very difficult to keep warm in the winter
B)Coal production was reduced in Britain because of the life-threatening smogs of the 1950s
C)When we bum coal, we are actually reproducing sunlight which nurtured plants and animals millions of years ago
D)Before its dangers were fully realised, nuclear power was once thought to be the key to future power supplies
E)Man's principal energy supplies coal and oil are unable to reproduce themselves
70-Nine rotten teeth from such notable mouths as Queen Victoria, Florence Nightingale and Princes Mary are to be sold at auction. The blackened teeth are thought to have been collected by a society dentist and acquired at the turn of the century by an antique dealer. ……………… . One reveals that Queen Victoria's 23rd tooth was removed when she was 12 years old in 1832. The collection features four of her teeth and two of her mother's.
A)Each tooth is accompanied by a tiny hand-written note
B)It is not known how much he might have paid for them
C)Why anyone would want to buy hundred-year-old rotten teeth has not been explained.
D)The history of dentistry reveals some strange facts
E)The question arises of whether it is entirely ethical or not to collect such artefacts


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71-The beaver is an aquatic mammal with a wide, scaly, paddle-like tail and webbed feet that it uses for
swimming. …………… . They build these dams to protect themselves from such animals as the coyote and the cougar. Their food consists mainly of the bark of the willow, poplar and other trees, but they also eat flowers, grasses and roots.
A)Beavers are often found in areas where people have constructed dams
B)The European beaver lives, like the water-rat, in the banks of streams
C)The American beaver makes dams of logs and branches, plastered with mud
D)In America, their homes have been known to cause flooding in wet areas
E)Beavers are known for their building ability and are thus called nature's engineers

72-President is the title given to the head of state or chief executive in most republics…………. . In others,
such as in Turkey, he merely represents his country, as does the monarch in a constitutional monarchy. In other cases again, such as in the American system, the president will exercise real political power as defined by a constitution.
A)Most often, presidents come into power through violent coups
B)No president may hold office for more than eight consecutive years
C)In some cases, the president may be a virtual dictator
D)The same title is also used for the top officials in some companies
E)In various political systems, the power of presidents varies considerably

73-During the Second World War, the London tube became an air-raid shelter. Heavy raids began on 7 September 1940, Of course, there was mass panic as people rushed to find shelter, eventually finding the tube stations ideal refugee. …………….. . Soon, all seventy-nine deep tube stations were officially designed as air-raid shelters, and by the end of the following mouth, an average of 138.000 people sheltered in the system.
A)The bombing completely destroyed the Underground during the next four and a half years of the war
B)Thus, people entered and refused to leave the underground until the raids ceased
C)Unlike the London Underground, the New York City Subway was never used for such a purpose
D)By the end of the month the city government had instituted a special programme to stop this activity
E)The raids ceased completely within a week, when the Germans saw how ineffective they had become

74-When St Augustine arrived in Milan, he observed that the church did not fast on Saturday, as did the Church in Rome. He consulted St Ambrose, the bishop of Milan, who replied: "when I am in Rome. I fast on Saturday. “When I am in Milan I do not. ……………. .” Over time, this comment has become the now famous form: "When in Rome, do as the Romans do.”

A)Since you are Roman, you must fast in Milan
B)Go and tell the people here that they should be fasting
C)So, I don't really care what you choose to do
D)if you want to fast, you must return to Rome
E)Follow the custom of the Church where you are

75-Through centuries of internal strife, and successions of warrior kingdoms, several ancient peoples fused into a unified national identity, as in the case of Scots. …………; Norsemen also settled in these lands, mixing with the native Celts and Picts. Though English is the main language today, traditional Gaelic is still understood by many Scots.

A)The land was uninhabited for thousands of years after the fall of Rome
B)Swedish people, however, came from Germanic tribes migrating from the south
C)While they all lived together, the groups never actually mixed
D)The original Scots migrated to the Celtic lands before the 10th century
E)The recorded history of Scotland begins in the 1st century AD, when the Romans invaded Britain

76-Denim, the material that jeans are made of originally referred to a type of fabric called serge. This was first manufactured in Nimes, a town in Southern France. ………….., which means 'serge from Nimes', but was eventually condensed and shortened to denim.

A)Afterwards, its popularity grew and it spread through Europe
B)Today, the city of Nimes still makes its now famous cloth
C)The famous Levi Strauss used this material to make the first jeans
D)To distinguish it from a rival product from Nice, also in France.
E)The name of the cloth first reflected its origin, 'serge de Nimes'

77-Postcard collectors should gain some knowledge of the subject before they spend money on the first old batch they see. Of the millions of cards issued before 1914, only about 5% are worth anything Particular manufacturers and artists are in demand. ………… , and so do cards illustrated with art nouveau, sports team pictures and stamps.

A)Collectors pay high prices for romantic cards with hearts and flowers
B)Cards showing the U.S. presidents' portraits are very valuable
C)The most popular ,cards are those printed in France in about 1900
D)Advertising cards command good prices, especially Coca-Cola's
E)A card with an interesting message on it will sell for a high price

78-………… . Beyond these stretched vast deserts. Thus, although it was several hundred miles in length, Egypt was only a few miles in breadth. The prosperity of the land depended, naturally, upon the Nile. Along it, ships brought trade to the towns; from it the villagers obtained water, as they still do.
A)The land of ancient Egypt had one of the strangest shapes known to recorded history
B)The people of ancient Egypt lived near the Nile, because it provided much needed water
C)Ancient Egypt consisted of two narrow strips of fertile land, one on each side of the Nile
D)Ancient Egypt was a very large country, although only a small portion of it was habitable
E)Historians agree that the settlement of the Nile valley took a long time, perhaps 2,000 years

79-One of the most important of literature writers have used to express their ideas over the last two centuries is the novel. Traditionally a novel is a story about a group of characters, where and how they live, and their relationship with each other. Usually the story has a beginning, a middle, and an end. …………. . By the time the novel is finished, all the loose parts are tied up, and often the good live happily ever after while the bad are punished.
A)Some critics consider Fielding's "Tom Jones" to be the first true English novel
B)The novel as a long prose fiction story was established early in the 17th century by Miguel de Cervantes in his ‘Don Quixote'
C)Though considered a Western European invention, the novel has spread to many African and Asian societies.
D)Psychological novels are stories in which the primary focus is on the workings of the mind in the leading character or characters
E)That is, some kind of problem is stated in the opening of the novel which is worked out through the book and solved at the end

80-Many strange stories are told of the Galapagos Islands in the Pacific Ocean. Whalers and pirates took shelter there. The latter are supposed to have buried treasure there. Other stories tell of the giant tortoises that inhabit the island. ………….. . The word means tortoises in Spanish.
A) Whether these were real or merely mythological is impossible to tell
B)These slow-moving creatures gave the name Galapagos to the islands
C)The Galapagos Islands are home to many fascinating species of wildlife
D)There are still more stories and legends about other strange creatures
E) Skeletons of these creatures may still be seen all over 'this remote island

81-The element lithium was discovered in 1817. Since then it has been used as a cure for gout, epilepsy, diabetes, and, most recently, to relieve depression. However, there is a drawback. ………… . The poison builds up in the body until it causes impaired vision and speech, vomiting and nausea. Coma and death can follow.

A)It is the lightest solid element of them all
B)It has been classified as an' illegal drug
C)A slight overdose is enough to cause problems
D)Temporary side effects have been known to occur
E)This should not prevent 1ts~careful use

82-Rockets have a long history. …………. . However, the missile age recently began during World War II, when German scientists developed flying bombs which almost won the war for their country. Their development of the V-1 and V-2 rockets, the most terrible weapons known until that time, became the basis for much of the subsequent rocket research.

A)As early as the 13th century the Chinese used them as military weapons
B)Rockets will be able to take man to a variety of planets in the future
C) During the First World War, none of the armies had the use of rockets
D)They are used today to power extremely fast experimental land vehicles
E)NASA's space shuttles use them to take off, but return to the Earth without them

83-Twenty years ago, senior managers might have been protected from unimportant memos by their juniors. …………..most managing directors have e-mail on their desktops, voice mail on their phones, business briefings on their computer screens and pagers on their belts, they are as open to overload as anyone.

A)Since the onset of the technological revolution, this has no longer been the case
B)Their secretaries open their mail and put it into their in-trays
C)Nowadays, the office memo is more vital than ever
D)Firms are trying to improve the situation by issuing guidelines
E)This meant they did not receive large amounts of vital information

84-Stonehenge is the most important ancient ruin in the British Isles, situated on Salisbury Plain, not far from the town of Salisbury. The monument is made up of two large circles of huge stones, in the centre of which are tall columns and a l5-foot blue stone block. Its origins are unknown……….. However, no scientific data have been advanced to support this theory.

A)Historians have always been interested in this mysterious ruin
B)It is known that the stone was brought to Salisbury from Wales
C)There are a lot of myths about the possible origins of the structure
D)Legend tells us that it was used for sun-worship by the Druids
E)Stonehenge was given to the nation by Sir Cecil Chubb in 1918

85-Judo is based on the ancient Japanese techniques known as ju-jitsu. It is practised in many countries, and since 1964 has been an event of the Olympic Games, ………… . In the former, each contestant pits his strength against the other. In judo, the art is to let one's adversary do all the work, using his strength, mistakenly applied, to bring about his own defeat.
A)A black belt indicates attainment of the highest level of skill
B)The Japanese are still the most skilful practitioners of judo
C)The summer Olympic Games are held every leap year
D)Not only men, but also women and children are increasingly interested in judo
E)Though they look similar, it is important to distinguish between wrestling and judo

86-…………… . This is attained by freeing oneself from all desires. It is the goal of Buddhist religious exercises and disciplines and is seen to be complete happiness, free from pain and suffering and from the restlessness and heat of emotions. The complete attainment of Nirvana is supposed to free the individual from the chain of reincarnation.

A)Most religions require great discipline from their followers
B)The history of Tibetan Buddhism can be divided into three periods
C)Buddhism is unique among religions in a number of ways
D)Complete happiness is the aim of many religions
E)For Buddhists, Nirvana represents perfect peace

87-CPR is the modern term for artificial respiration. It is only required when the victim has suffered a loss of breathing or heartbeat. The first step in determining whether breathing and heartbeat have stopped is to go to the victim and shout, 'Are you okay?' …………. . Still, the person who doesn't reply may only have fainted, so, as the second step. you should continue by listening for breathing to make sure whether CPR is necessary.

A)Lastly check the persons pulse rate
B) Place the victim on a hard, flat surface in order to administer CPR
C)C9ntinue to administer CPR until a doctor can take over from you
D)If you get an answer to this, then obviously, the person is not in need of CPR
E)If there is no reply, CPR is required and should be administered immediately

88-The Ice Age is our 'most recent' geological period, beginning about 2 million years ago and lasting until about 10 or 20 thousand years ago. During this time, great continental glaciers formed in North America and
Northern Europe. ………… . In fact, the ice advanced and retreated at least four times, alternating with mild intervals.

A)Many mammals became extinct in this era
B)However, the climate was not uniformly cold
C)No explanation has been generally accepted
D)It is also known as the Pleistocene period
E)Manhattan Island was a rock moved by glaciers

89-Recently there has been a revolution in the attitude of blue-marlin fishermen. Put simply, blue-marlin fishing is no longer a blood sport. ………., because they don't kill the fish any more. It is enough for them just to tag a marlin: reeling it close, marking it and putting it back into the water, in order to fight another day.

A) Earnest Hemingway was extremely fond of blue-marlin fishing
B) Fishermen rarely seek an obligatory photo beside their dead fish hooked up over the dock
C) Only the rich indulge in blue-marlin fishing because of the time and expense involved
D) In Britain, blood sports attract almost as many protectors as hunters
E) Some people say that an instinct for hunting has been handed down to us by our ancestors.

90-In rural Albania, it can be easier to find heavy artillery than to find a telephone. Therefore, when a quick-thinking villager needed to call the police to the scene of an accident, he used what was handy. ……….The police appreciated his idea enough not to arrest him. They did, however, take away the gun.

A)This points out just how convenient It can be to have a mobile telephone
B)It was lucky that there happened to be a telephone nearby
C)There is a great deal of weaponry left over from the days when Albania was invaded
D)This happened to be his very own anti-aircraft gun
E)There are not very many police, either, in rural Albania

91-Rose Hawthorne Lathrop, the youngest child of the author Nathaniel Hawthorne, also began a literary career, publishing several works. …………… . Under her leadership, two homes for sufferers of incurable cancer were opened in New York.

A)She wrote 'A Story of Courage' with her husband in 1894
B)Rose spent an enjoyable childhood with all the pleasures of refined surroundings
C)She married George P. Lathrop in 1871
D)Her father wrote the renowned novel, 'The Scarlet Letter'
E)But later, she became a nun, devoting her life to caring for the terminally ill
92-In recent years, there has been an advance in the technique known as transplant surgery. This means the replacement of a diseased or damaged part of the body by a healthy one from another person. ………… . This is because our bodies' natural defence against any invader, as with a transplanted organ, is to attempt to destroy it.
A) People can now carry "organ donor" cards, giving permission for their organs to be used after their death
B)The biggest stumbling block in this area of medicine, however, has been the body itself
C)There are even transplants from certain animals to humans
D)Occasionally, there are moving stories of parents who donate their organs to their dying children
E)Only a few years ago, no one would have believed this possible

93-Margarine was introduced into the United States in 1874 and immediately aroused the opposition of the dairy industry. Taxes were imposed on the substance; in some states, yellow-coloured margarine could not be sold; and federal laws required, among other strict rules, that restaurants serving margarine post a conspicuous notice of that fact. ……………, and now Americans eat as much margarine as butter.
A)However, the consumption of margarine has grown
B)Later types of margarine used animal fats and vegetable oils
C)Laws vary from state to state, but serious crimes are referred to as federal crimes
D)Whale oil was used originally for lamp fuel and later as an ingredient of other products
E)However rapid societal changes created a demand for fast food restaurants

94-Medgar Evers was the first field secretary of the National Association for the Advancement of Coloured People in the state of Mississippi. During the late 1950s and early 1960s, he registered black voters and organised boycotts of firms that practised racial discrimination. ………….. . A white supremacist, Byron De la Beckwith was tried three times for the murder. The first two trials ended in a mistrial but he was finally convicted and sentenced to life imprisonment in 1994.
A)In 1963, he was shot and killed by a sniper in front of his home
B)Of the total population of Mississippi, thirty-five percent is black
C)In that same year, more than 200,000 blacks and whites marched to the Lincoln Memorial
D)Racial segregation in South Africa is known as apartheid
E)Abraham Lincoln effectively freed all slaves in the Emancipation Proclamation

95-It is a windy, clear afternoon on the Gulf of Mexico, 70 miles out from the Texas coast. The water is dull, grey and choppy. The crew are dozing over plates of half eaten mangoes. Suddenly a road bends………… . The fight is on. After 30 minutes of physical to and fro, the sailfish kicks hard and snaps the line. A cheer goes up as big game fishing is not about who wins, but about the fight.
A)Mangoes are a delicious tropical fruit, especially good when eaten on a boat
B)Two members of the crew begin to quarrel over the mangoes
C)A big sailfish punches out of the water, spreads its blue sail fin and shoots back under the water
D)One of the fastest fishes is the sailfish, which can swim at speeds of up to 68 miles per hour
E)Not surprisingly, they all hate sharks and are eager to kill this one

96-Millions of years ago, there was no life on this planet. ……….. . It was just a ball of flaming gases. These gases were in a state of considerable chemical turmoil, reacting together to form and reform chemicals. As time passed the gases cooled, became liquid, and eventually a thin crust was formed over the surface. Beneath this crust, the centre of the Earth was, and remains today, a molten mass of rocks and metals with a solid core.
A)In fact, there was no planet as we would recognise it today
B)Even after life appeared, it was a long time until humans first evolved
C)The first life forms appeared in water
D)There may have been one more planet at the time, which has now become the asteroid belt
E)Even now no one knows if there is life on other planets

97-A super liner like the Queen Elizabeth II, or QE2 for short, contains all the elements of a floating town with a population of about 3000. The QE2 can take 2025 passengers, and has a crew of 906, who maintain the ship and look after the passengers. There are restaurants, a theatre, cinema, and four swimming pools. ……….. . All this is driven by engines producing 110.000 horse power, giving her a top speed of 30 knots, nearly twice the speed of a super tanker.
A)For a time, super liners were thought to be outdated, but now they seem to be making a come-back
B)Passengers on the Queen Elisabeth II can visit a lot of ports all over the world
C)In addition, there is a hospital, a dentist's surgery and a printing plant for the ship's daily newspaper
D)Of Course some people prefer to travel by plane because it is faster and cheaper
E)Under international law, powered vessels of more than 300 gross tons must carry licensed officers

98-Serendib, as the early Arab seamen called the island we know today as Sri Lanka, may have been the land in one version of Sinbad's Seventh Voyage. In that story, Sinbad was captured by pirates and sold into slavery to an ivory dealer. ……….. . Eventually the elephants showed Sinbad their secret graveyard, so he could obtain the ivory without killing them.
A)Slavery was common until this century and is still practised in some parts of the world today
B)Elephants are said to have amazing memories
C)The ivory trade has decimated the once vast herds of elephants in East Africa
D)The man forced Sinbad to go into the forest every day and kill an elephant for its tusks
E)Though Sinbad is usually described as a "sailor", it would be more correct to call him a "merchant adventurer"

99-………….. . Smokers who we trying to give up were split into two groups. One group was given acupuncture, specially designed to help them stop smoking. Of this group, 31% had given up smoking after three weeks, while none of the people in the second control group succeeded in giving up.
A)Many strange techniques are tried by people attempting to give up smoking
B)Smoking is one of the most serious addictions and is very hard to beat
C)Many doctors are now trying to help their patients to give up smoking
D)Acupuncture is an ancient Chinese practice that involves the use of needles
E)New research has shown that acupuncture can help people stop smoking

100-Viruses are even smaller than bacteria, and are the simplest known forms of life. ………… . They live as parasites in bacteria, animals and some plants, Viruses invade the cells of their hosts and simply take them over. The DNA in the virus takes over the DNA in the host cell and changes the instructions so that the host produces more viruses. There are a large number of diseases caused by viruses, such as influenza, measles and smallpox.
A)We use friendly bacteria to make yoghurt and cheese
B)They are not able to live by themselves
C)Some tulips have a virus infection in their petals which gives them an attractive colour
D)Antibacterial drugs are obtained from living organisms
E)Modern vaccines may contain bacteria or viruses which are dead, or still alive but weakened

101-Born in St Lucia in 1930, Derek Walcott and his twin brother Roderick were brought up by their mother, a schoolteacher, …………….. . Derek attended school in Jamaica and studied theatre in New York, then returned to the Caribbean to found and direct the Trinidad Theatre Workshop in 1959. In addition to having published 18 volumes of poetry, he wrote 40 plays and several screenplays. In 1992, he won the Nobel prise for literature.
A)so almost all literature has been produced by descendants of people brought to the region as slaves
B)since the 1950s, a large number of people have emigrated from the Caribbean to Britain
C)however, the Caribbean is better-known for cricket than for literary figures
D)whereas sugar and rum are the main agricultural products of the region
E)because their father, an amateur poet and painter, died when they were a year old

102-………….. . It was designed and built during World War II to break the complex code used between the German High Command and front-line forces. The first model was demonstrated at Blectcley Park, the British forces intelligence centre, in December 1943, with a faster version in operation by June1944, days before D Day. Historians believe that the code-breaking made possible by Colossus shortened the war by two years.
A)The tank has become one of the most formidable weapons of ground warfare
B)The Spitfire is probably the most famous plane of the Second World War
C)The first electronic programmable computer was called Colossus
D)The code-breaking work carried out at Bletchley Park has become a British legend
E)The “Goon Show" was one of the most popular radio comedy shows of post-war Britain

103-As a book collector, you should limit your interest to certain genres, themes or nationalities of authors. For example, science fiction, Russian literature, cinema books or books on World War I. ………… . Subsequent editions, on the other hand, generally have little value, and editions issued by book clubs are worthless.
A)Choose the first topic that comes into your mind
B)Normally, the most valuable books are first editions
C)Perhaps science fiction books are the most valuable
D)Books need protection from humidity and dryness
E)Modern books can be found almost everywhere now

104-Climatologists predict that a doubling of carbon dioxide and other gases in the atmosphere will occur over the next l00years. ………. . This is an average rate much higher than at any time in the last 10,000 years.

A)Likewise, a drop in the ability to handle the effects of these chemicals may occur
B)However, other scientists foresee a much greater increase in nitrous oxide
C)It might not produce any noticeable effect on the global environmental situation
D)The level of these gases could become a serious threat to all known forms of life
E)This would lead to a rise in the Earth's temperature between 1 and 3.5 degrees

105-The number of people who go to the cinema has declined since the great days of Hollywood in the 1930s and '40s. The most likely cause is the ever-growing population of television. ……….. . Perhaps this reviving interest is because the cinema today is truly international, with films being made and distributed all over the world, and reflecting many different interests and cultures.

A)There is new evidence to show that the cinema audience is gradually returning, though
B)The most famous producer of the time was Samuel Goldwin
C)Colour films were first made in the late 193Os, the most famous of which is undoubtedly "Gone with the Wind"
D)The stars of those days like Clark Gable and mien Leigh, still fascinate us decades later
E)Thus the largest film industry today is not in Hollywood, but in Bombay

106-One of the biggest factors affecting the pattern of trade has been the creation of the European Community and other similar groups of trading countries. These have been designed to make it easier and cheaper to move goods about within the group…………., which is a kind of tax that countries charge on goods coming into the country. This makes goods imported from outside the group more expensive than goods from within the group.
A)Many additional jobs were created when the European Community established its headquarters in Brussels
B)Another example is ASEAN, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations
C)The main way this is done is by the member countries agreeing to a common external tariff
D)NATO is completely different because it is a purely military grouping
E)European Community citizens can move about freely between the member countries

107-Alien Ginsberg, who died in 1997 in New York, formed the Beat Generation of the 1950s along with William Burroughs and Jack Kerouac. Ginsberg first captured public attention in 1956 with 'Howl', a long poem that raged against a conformist society. ………… . These non-conformist activities para1el his work, for which he drew his inspiration from yoga, Buddhism, Native American mysticism, and Torah, and U.S. poets like William Carlos Williams.
A)He was active in both the hippie and anti-war movements
B)Some people consider them to have been the forerunners of the hippies
C)It was the Vietnam. War that brought about the counter-cultural movement known as the hippies
D)Rock groups like the Beatles and the Rolling Stones all joined in the counter-culture movement
E)Burroughs and Kerouac were novelists

108-Captain Matthew Webb swam the English Channel from Dover to Calais, ……….. . For 22 hours, he swam the high seas. Although he lived to tell about it, he was not so lucky eight years later, when he drowned trying to swim the Niagara River.
A)becoming the first person to do so without a life Jacket
B)while sitting aboard a 75-foot French-made yacht
C)unfortunately, he had a fatal accident on the return trip to Calais
D)and managed to accomplish this in less than half a day
E)eight years before a similar achievement on the Niagara River

109-Luigi Galvani was an Italian physiologist who investigated the relationship between electrical currents and animal tissue. ........, and so is the galvanometer, an instrument which is used to detect and measure electrical currents.
A)He invented the first practical electrical switches
B)The verb “galvanize" is derived from his name
C)He was arrested for animal cruelty in 1798
D)He learnt how electricity is related to nerves
E)The Catholic Church condemned Galvani's activities

110-........ . Very occasionally it can get completely out of control, as it did in Germany in the 192Os, when people had to take baskets full of notes to buy a loaf of bread. In China in the 1930s, people eating in restaurants always paid before they ate, in case the price of the meal rose as they were eating. Today, no place in the world is quite that bad, but inflation can be a serious problem for people on fixed incomes, like those living on a pension.

A)A police state is one in which democracy does not exist and people have few or no personal freedoms
B)"Deflation", the opposite of inflation, refers to a fall in prices, but is a very unusual situation
C)There are several examples in history of completely militarised societies
D)A situation where prices keep rising is called "inflation"
E)Money has no value in itself; it is only valuable as a medium of exchange

111-People once thought that the Earth was flat and that you could fall off the edge. Most of us now think of the planet as a sphere, although it is more accurately described as an "oblate spheroid", being flattened at the poles and bulging at the Equator. …………. . On the other hand, unlike an onion, each layer of the Earth is made of a different material.

A)Though this flattening and bulging can be measured. it cannot be seen from a spacecraft
B)It is quite useful to think of the Earth, as being rather like an onion, that is, a ball made of different layers
C)The Earth is sometimes compared to an onion, but onions tend to be pointed rather than flattened at the "poles"
D)A lemon, for example, is just the opposite shape from that of the Earth
E)If you were to slice the Earth down the middle, it would not, in fact, look anything like an onion

112-When there are too many predators, not enough resources and a great deal of competition, an animal population dies .............. . This can be just as bad. Such a population explosion happened when the brown tree snake arrived on Guam in the cargo of a military plane 50 years ago. The ecosystem was not ready for the reptilian assault, and the snake had no natural competitors or enemies there. As a result, virtually every songbird on Guam has been eaten by the snakes.

A)A number of species have become extinct within living memory
B)But when the opposite occurs, the population explodes
C)No one likes to see an animal population die out
D)Mankind can help protect endangered species
E)This sort of pattern is often found in small environments like islands

113-Once upon a time in Britain, food was something you simply ate. Industrialised early, Britain became a country of cities and factories well before the continent, and Britons got used to eating from tins. In the 40s and 50s, 15 years of war rations solidified the tradition. Food was eaten, but it was not talked about. ……….. . Food has become a national obsession.
A)It will probably always be that way
B)We know from novels that the British ate more interesting things before the industrial age
C)Nevertheless, English cheeses are not as bad
D)Most people feel that the less said about English food, the better
E)However, now the British seem to talk about nothing else.

114-Niagara Falls, on the Canada-USA border, must be one of the most photographed spots in the world. ……… . The Horseshoe Falls on the Canadian side of the border is much the larger of the two. As the name indicates, it is a large semicircle. The American Falls, slightly higher than the Horseshoe Falls, is almost in a straight line. Nineteen times as much water flows over the Canadian falls as over the American ones.
A)People have gone over Niagara Falls in a barrel as a stunt
B)One reason is that it is a favourite honeymoon spot
C)It is actually two separate waterfalls
D)The border between the US and Canada is said to be the longest unguarded border in the world
E)Some scientists are worried about the effects of erosion on the falls

115-A mineral can be regarded as a solid material with a fixed chemical composition and having elements that are similar throughout. This is how minerals differ from rocks. ……….. . Granite, for example, is made up mostly of three minerals - quartz, feldspar and mica. These three minerals, however, are not always present in the same quantities.
A)Minerals always have the same composition and structure, while rocks are usually made up of a mixture of minerals
B)It is particularly interesting to note that about half the Earth's crust is made up of oxygen
C)Except for agricultural products, most of our raw materials come from minerals found in rocks
D)One of the first things you might notice about a mineral is its colour, though this can be misleading
E)Analysing such bodies as meteorites, we find that the Earth is probably largely made up of iron, oxygen, silicon and magnesium in that order

116-Branches of the same family, the Czechs and the Slovaks speak similar tongues. Slovaks endured Hungarian rule for most of their history; Czechs enjoyed power and influence before bending to Habsburg control. …….. . In the "velvet Revolution" of 1989, they rejoiced in the same victory over 41 years of Communist rule. Yet barely two years later, they had sued for a "velvet divorce", splitting the country into the Czech and Slovak Republics.
A)Hitler invaded part of Czechoslovakia in World War II
B)At one time, a part of the present-day Ukraine was included in Czechoslovakia
C)The most famous Czech literary figure is 'The Good Soldier Schveik"
D)After World War I, a free nation composed of the two of them, Czechoslovakia, was created
E)Religion is said to be more important for the Slovaks than for the Czechs

117-ln the year 1906, San Francisco was wrecked by an earthquake. The earthquake was the result of movement along the San Andreas Fault, which runs for almost 1300 kilometres along the west coast of America. It seems as if the whole floor of the Pacific Ocean was shifted northwards by a distance of about 6 metres. ………. . A great deal of the damage was, however, not caused directly by the earthquake itself, but by the flees that raged as gas mains were severed.
A)Tokyo is another city which often suffers from earthquakes
B)It is very likely that the San Andreas Fault may move again
C)Architectural advances have meant that there are more and more earthquake-proof buildings
D)This apparently small lateral movement of rock was enough to kill 700 people and to cause a huge amount of damage
E)Earthquakes are shockwaves that spread out in all directions from the source when rocks are suddenly and violently disturbed

118-Pyramids have been built in many parts of the world, but the most famous are in Egypt. …….. . Known as the Step Pyramid because of its unusual stepped shape, it was the world's first large all-stone structure. The largest of the Egyptian pyramids is the Great Pyramid of the pharaoh Cheops at Gisa, which is made of over 2 million stone blocks, each weighing from two to fifteen tons. It took approximately 23 years to build this massive structure.
A)Before this, the dead were buried in smaller stone structures called mastabas
B)The first was built more than four thousand years ago as his tomb by a pharaoh named Zoser
C)Every year thousands of tourists visit the pyramids of Giza
D)Some people believe that pyramids have magical properties
E)The civilisation of ancient Egypt was one of the most stable in world history

119-Alexandra David-Neel spent many years in Tibet and was the first European to visit various parts of that mysterious
land. ………. . However, she never hesitated to push on and continue her travels. Her heroic adventures were fully documented in a number of books and articles she published in English and French.
A)Her husband provided her with money to carry out her explorations
B)As a young person, Alexandra dreamed of travelling to faraway places
C)She was the first European woman who was allowed to meet the Dalai Lama
D)Some of the hardships and hazards she faced were unbelievably difficult
E)She spoke the Tibetan language and often travelled disguised as a peasant woman

120- A defining event of the century came in 1913 when Henry Ford opened his assembly line. Ordinary people could now afford a Model T. From now on, products were mass-produced and mass-marketed, with all the centralisation and conformity that entails. ………. . In reaction to this standardisation, a modernist rebellion against conformity motivated art, music, literature, fashion, and even behaviour for much of the century.
A)Everyone was so happy with this situation that there was no disapproval of it
B)With the ever increasing standard of living, today almost everyone in the United States has a car
C)Products were distributed or broadcast in standard form from central facilities to millions of people
D)This obviously means that almost everyone is happier than ever before
E)Today. countries prefer to concentrate on the production of a few items rather than many

121-Some of the best discoveries are accidental. Until the 18405, for example, rubber was not a very useful material because it was too stiff in cold weather and too soft in hot weather. An American named Charles Goodyear tried to solve this problem by mixing rubber and sulphur, but the experiment failed. ……… . Though he patented the process, which we know today as "vulcanised rubber", it was so simple that many others copied it.
A)One day, he spilt his mixture on a hot stove, and this gave him just the substance he was alter
B)Since he could not create the .substance he wanted, he went bankrupt and died penniless
C)Today he is remembered because of the tyres that bear his name
D)Natural rubber comes from the sap of a tree that has been very carefully cut
E)Then he had an accident and burned himself so badly that he had to stop his search for a long time

122-Before the Presidency of Franklin Delano Roosevelt, the United States had suffered an economic depression roughly every twenty years. This was regarded by business leaders as natural. …………. . Yet the economic stabilisers of the New deal - social security, minimum wage, unemployment compensation, for example - have preserved the country against major depressions for more than half a century. Roosevelt's most significant domestic achievement was to have saved capitalism from the capitalists.
A)Roosevelt was elected president four times, more than any other US president in history
B)Roosevelt's "New Deal" was loudly denounced by these business leaders at the time
C)The Great Depression which began in 1929 was finally ended by World War II
D)Ordinary workers, on the other hand, suffered unemployment and severe hardship
E)A whole folklore has grown up around the economic hard times of the 1930s

123-……….. . Once language had developed, men were able to exchange thoughts and ideas. Perhaps most important of all, they were able to cooperate in improving their living conditions. The written word came after the spoken word, and enabled people to record their thoughts and their discoveries for future generations to study.
A)It is-remarkable that so many different languages have developed in the world
B)Children below the age of puberty are far more able to learn languages than adults are
C)The languages of the world are divided into many different families
D)It's man's ability to communicate that has helped him to progress to his present highly civilised state
E)Experiments have shown that other animals, such as dolphins, are able to communicate using language

124-One of the wonders of modern medicine is spare-part surgery. This enables many of our joints to be replaced by man-made ones of stainless steel alloys, or plastics. A common joint replacement is that of the hip, but others such as elbow, shoulder and knee joints can also be replaced with artificial ones. The materials used in spare-part surgery have to be inert. ……….. . It would be very unpleasant to end up with a rusty hip joint.
A)That is, they mustn't cause the body's natural defences to reject them, and the materials must not corrode
B)People from as recently as a century ago would be amazed by what can be done now
C)Though artificial arms and legs have been common for centuries, these internal replacements are a new innovation
D)Modern surgery is able to cure most kinds of cancer if they are detected early enough
E)In spare parts for household appliances, of course, this is far less important

125-Medicine has been described as an art that makes use of all the sciences. Its purpose is to maintain the body in good health, to relieve pain, mend injury, and help prolong life. ………… . When we are ill, however, we know that we can get expert treatment from our doctors or specialists.
A)In some countries people commonly suffer from diseases that have long been controlled or eradicated in the West
B)Some surgical techniques which we think of as modern were in fact practised by the ancient Egyptians
C)This is perhaps why there is so much controversy today over euthanasia, or "mercy killing"
D)Today most of us take our health for granted, and if we are young, we probably never think about being ill
E)Its development has led to greater life expectancies in most parts of the world

126-Radiocarbon dating works by measuring an object for an element called carbon 14, traces of which are contained in all
organic substances. …………. . This is possible because, although the amount present an living organisms remains nearly constant, when animals and plants die, their level of carbon 14 begins to decrease at a known, fixed rate. Thus the amount of remaining carbon 14 in an object provides a measurement of its age.
A)When it was used on the Turin shroud, supposedly dating from the time of Jesus, it was found to date only from the 13th century
B)Certain religious fundamentalists do not accept radiocarbon dating because it shows the' world to lie older than they believe it to be
C)Archaeologists use radiocarbon dating to discover the age of ancient items
D)Wood from the bristlecone pine has been used to correct the carbon 14 dating system
E)Scientists must be very careful in choosing their samples for radiocarbon dating

127-As anyone who follows rugby football knows, the game in South Africa is hard fought and tough. During the apartheid era, it was the whites-only Springboks, the national team, probably more than any other South African institution, which came to symbolise a divided society. ………. . After the Springboks defeated New Zealand in the World Cup final in 1995, South Africa's blacks cheered instead of jeered, and a jubilant Nelson Mandela even wore one of the green and gold Springbok jerseys, once so symbolic of white supremacy.
A)Now a game enjoyed equally by blacks and whites, rugby has helped with the country's reconciliation
B)For much of the apartheid era, South Africa was under an international sports boycott
C)Cricket is another sport that few blacks in South Africa have played at international level
D)Today some of the worst officials of the apartheid era are having to answer for their crimes
E)Considering the small population of the islands, Samoa produces a remarkable number of good rugby players

128-……………. . The pessimists complain that the computer revolution has gone about as far as it can go. They argue that the size of the atom - and the electrons that surround it - puts a limit on how many transistors can be squeezed onto the surface of a silicone chip. The optimists believe that chips will keep getting smaller and faster at a predictable rate, traditionally a doubling of capacity every 18 months. Because the optimists have been right, the computer industry has been extremely successful.
A)There are optimists and pessimists in all walks of life
B)Computer engineers speak a language that no one else can understand
C)Originally there were many different kinds of computer operating systems, but now two types dominate the industry
D)Computer scientists tend to fall into two camps: the optimists and the pessimists
E)No one, not even the optimists, predicted the computer revolution of the late 20th century

129-Speaking in public may be more than just terrifying. The stress may be deadly. A new US study has found that people whose hearts show ominous signs of poor circulation during such mental challenges face triple the usual risk of death in the years to come. Often people with bad hearts suffer chest pain during physical exertion. The reason for this is obvious. …………….. . Over the past decade, however, it has become clear that mental exertion can also overwork the heart, although often without pain.

A)People with high risk factors should have regular checkups
B)Smoking is another risk factor for heart patients
C)This creates a problem since it is important that heart patients get an appropriate amount of exercise
D)Their clogged arteries cannot supply enough blood to their heart muscle
E)Everyone who has ever had to give a speech has probably suffered from a certain amount of nervousness

130-Globally, tuberculosis is among the biggest killers of young people and adults. In India, half a million people die from the disease each year. ………….. , when India adopted a strategy known as DOTS, or "directly observed treatment strategy" to combat the disease. DOTS involves an intensive system of monitoring and supervision which tracks the diagnosis, progress and outcome of every patient treated.

A)One reason is that homes often have no chimneys as a way to conserve heat
B)However, the death rate has come down dramatically since the 1 980s
C)In Japan, tuberculosis has always been considered an extremely romantic way to die
D)A chest X-ray can reveal spots, or dots on the lungs, which are an early symptom of tuberculosis
E)A new strategy can bring down the death rate quite dramatically

131-In Britain, about two million people, most of whom are drivers, are so seriously illiterate that they cannot read a road sign. Twenty percent of all Britons are unable to read something so basic as the Yellow pages. …………… . Yet the problem is significant among young people too. One in five 19-year-olds have such difficulty in reading and writing that all but unskilled work is closed to them. In all of Europe, only Poland and Ireland have lower literacy rates.

A)People over 55 are the most seriously affected with illiteracy
B)This is a problem among young people as well as older people
C)In some schools, metal detectors are used to make sure students do not have guns
D)In spite of the difficulty of its language, Japan has one of the highest literacy rates in the world
E)This means they will have trouble phoning the places they need to phone

132-Thailand is an immensely fertile land and the society has traditionally drawn strength from agriculture. For the visitor, the fascination with this agricultural society lies in the enormous variety of fruits, vegetables, spices and flowers that are cultivated. …………. . Indeed, it has been recognised in the last few years that Thai food ranks as one of the world's great culinary arts.

A)Orchids are particularly beautiful in Thailand
B)Excellent fruit is cheap and abundant at all times of the year
C)Historically, the north-eastern part of Thailand has been known for livestock production
D)It is the availability of such a variety of fresh produce that makes Thai cuisine so rich and varied
E)For more than a century, rice has been the leading export, followed at a distance by rubber

133-…………. . Wet, well-washed hands can transmit as many as 60,000 bacteria, while dry, well-washed hands transmit just 200. Moisture is a perfect vehicle for microorganisms, and as it's impossible to get hands perfectly clean by washing anyway, it's better to prevent the spread of germs by drying hands properly.
A)Many people have had flu this winter and doctors are advising us to take preventative measures
B)In most modern cultures, people prefer to bath or shower at least once a day to keep clean
C)Drying your hands thoroughly is more important for hygiene than careful washing
D)If you wash using a good soap, you should be able to get your hands completely clean
E)From a young age, children should be taught to wash their hands before they eat anything

134-…………… . Had it not been for the friendly Indians, the colonists would never have survived the terrible winters. From them, they learnt to build canoes for water transportation, and to make snowshoes and toboggans for winter travelling. It was also from the Native Americans that they learnt of the typical foods such as maize, squash, beans, and pumpkins.
A)The British first arrived in India in the late 16th century
B)The Spanish conquerors were interested in only one thing: gold
C)Though the winters in the northern parts of North America can be harsh, they are no worse than those in parts of northern Europe
D)When the Europeans in America began to move west, they drove the native Americans before them, taking their land as they went
E)When the English settlers first arrived in North America, the hardships they experienced were totally unexpected

135-The plant cyclamen is known as "shepherd's soap."………… . They would take the bulbs of the plant, cut them into pieces and rub their clothes with them. The stuff in the plants worked in the same way that today’s detergents do.
A)Despite the abundance of the flowers, it is worth taking a close look at one of the cyclamen
B)The cyclamen also contains a poisonous material which was known and used by the Romans
C)Cyclamen leaves were often used in the past, before the plant became a protected species
D)The cyclamen bulb contains a foaming material which villagers used to wash their clothes
E)The legend says after the destruction of the temple in Jerusalem, the cyclamen bowed their heads in mourning

136-Alan still held the frying pan in his hand. The whites of his eyes glinted in the light of the oil lamp. ………., but at that moment his son, Peter, came into the room, and Alan lowered the pan and rearranged his face into a less manic pattern. His wife, Esther, took the frightened look off her face, straightened up, and smiled at her son maternally.

A)Peter was six foot two, some six inches taller than his father and had short blond hair
B)It seemed for a moment that he was going to throw the omelette full into his wife's face
C)The washing up seemed to continue without end, and the pan Just wouldn't come clean
D)He was trying to decide exactly what he should cook for dinner and how to prepare it
E)The school uniform he was obliged to wear did not succeed in making him look like a child

137-………. .The former, an instrumental style used for early forms of modern social dancing, flourished from the early 1890s to 1910. The blues was a vocal style of music developed in the late 1800s. This usually consisted of a sad song, sung by a single voice in slow time. In the early 19005 blues singers were accompanied by ragtime bands. This combination of styles became jazz.

A)America has produced many interesting types of music
B)The saxophone and the trumpet play an important role in music
C)New Orleans in the US was the birthplace of blues music
D)Folk music in America has had an interesting history
E)The immediate sources of Jazz are ragtime and blues

138-………….. . It costs nearly a million dollars, and is more expensive to run than Concorde. There are just 10 of them in Britain and fewer than a hundred in the world. It is the only car for use on public roads to be designed with a limitless budget. With its six-litre V-12 engine it reaches 96 kilometres per hour in just 3 seconds and has an astonishing speed of 384 kph.

A)The world's most expensive car is the McLaren Fl
B)A private helicopter, while more convenient, is more expensive than a private plane
C)Though it is expensive a private plane is a reasonable option for rich and busy businessmen
D)The hydrofoil is one of the latest Innovations in public transport
E)This is one of the few original works by Leonardo da Vinci still in existence

139-"The Lost World" Is the title of an adventure story written by the late Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, creator of
Sherlock Holmes. ……… . There they found and battled with the dinosaur- the Stegosaurus, the Brontosaurus and various other creatures that had mysteriously survived in this primitive land.

A)He wrote the book after he travelled to a number of Pacific Islands, including the Galapagos Islands
B)There is a part of Venezuela now known as The Lost World which is full of strange animals
C)It tells of a group of people who explored a wilderness in which man had never before set foot
D)'The Lost World," however, failed to sell well so Doyle returned to writing detective fiction
E)Sherlock Holmes is a marvellous amateur detective who always unravels the most baffling mysteries

140-When the pre-Raphaelites became part of the British art scene in the mid-19th century, they became the most talked-about movement in contemporary culture. The popularity of the style of such leading male artists as Dante Gabriel Rossetti, Edward Burne-Jones and others is greater now than ever . …………. . It is now time for a reassessment of these forgotten artists.
A)Christina Rossetti. a notable poet of the time was the model for many paintings by her brother Dante and his artist friends
B)Some of their images are truly unforgettable
C)Their works are reproduced on calendars posters and even on plates and saucers
D)But despite the crucial role that women artists played in the movement, their achievement has largely been ignored
E)After the Impressionists they are probably the best-remembered artists of the 19th century


141-In many parts of Asia folk jewellery the most dazzling expression of material culture, has disappeared in the wake of modernisation. In Nepal, however, where the Himalayas have formed a barrier to outsiders for centuries, native jewellery traditions remain strong. ……….. . Lavish pieces, are worn to celebrate marriage or promote fertility, while amulets are worn to fight off negative influences.
A)A rich artistic and cultural tradition has developed that often includes both Hindu and Buddhist themes
B)There, Jewellery is usually worn for decoration. or as a religious expression
C)This is an important attraction for tourists
D)In Kathmandu, the capital of Nepal. Hindus and Buddhists often worship at the same temples
E)In neighbouring Tibet, Jewellery is often made of coral, since centuries ago Tibet was actually at the bottom of the sea

142-……….. . At first, actors had to manage with crude, makeshift stages in ruins or barns, but it soon turned out that their efforts were well worth the hardships. It seemed as if the whole nation was turning to the theatre for advice and comfort in the midst of the catastrophe that had come down on them.
A)The Allied conquest of Germany resulted in the destruction of most public buildings
B)German authors returned from exile with poems and novels ready in their bags
C)By 1953 no fewer than 168 new theatres had been opened in western Germany
D)The public had developed a strong craving for whatever the outside world could offer
E)Almost immediately after the defeat in 1945 a rebirth of German theatre began


143-One of the dominating astronomical discoveries of the 20th century was the realisation that the galaxies of the universe all seem to be moving away from us. ……….. . In other words, the universe seems to be expanding. Hence, scientists conclude that the universe must once, very long ago, have been extremely compact and dense.
A)The explosion of matter giving birth to the universe is called the Big Bang
B)As a result of all this movement, the universe seems to be getting smaller
C)Scientists do not know if there is a limit to this pattern of movement
D)It turned out that they are not just moving away from us, but also from each other
E)As yet, scientists have not been able to understand what this motion means

144-King Arthur was the king of Britain in what is known as the Arthurian legend. ………….. . However, it is probable that, of the many persons who figure in the Arthurian legend, he is the only one who actually may have done so. If so, he was born in the late 400s, was king and led the Britons in war against the invading Anglo-Saxons
A)These are the stories of the knights of the Round Table
B)There is little evidence to say that he existed
C)Storytellers have been telling these stories for hundreds of years
D)This cycle of stories comes from Celtic mythology
E)He was married to Queen Guinevere and had a magic sword

145-At the top of the world lie not one pole, but two. ……….. . This pole is not fixed, but slowly wanders. Today it is on Prince William Island, an area rich in minerals, forests and animal life. The other, the geographic North Pole, on end of the axis on which the Earth spins , is in a wilderness of ice and snow, a dead region which can barely support life.
A)One is the Magnetic North Pole, to which all compass needles point
B)Finally, in 1909, an American, Robert Peary, readied the Pole
C)The same is true of the Antarctic regions, where there are two south poles
D)The centre of this vast ice-covered Arctic Ocean is known as the Pole of inaccessibility
E)It is not land at all, but a thin crust of ice over the Arctic Ocean

146-In the past, among the English aristocracy, it was the custom to present boys with a sword and a set of pipes when they came of age. But the pipes were not new when the boy received them. ………… . Over the years they matured, losing the bitter taste of the wood and improving their ability to absorb the nicotine. So by the time the boy was old enough to smoke, he was the proud possessor of a set of fine mature pipes.
A)On the other hand, the sword was always brand new and specially designed
B)The boys were not regarded as mature enough to deserve a new set of pipes
C)Boys who chose to smoke before coming of age had to smoke cigarettes
D)They were bought when the child was born and handed to a servant to smoke
E)This was in case the young man decided he didn't want to be a pipe smoker

147-Palmistry experts claim the hand is a 'road map' for life events. ………….. . If it goes straight up to the middle finger, success will be slow but sure. If it curves to run parallel with another line, expect a major change by your 30s. If it curves towards your index finger you are career-driven and if it curves towards your ring finger, you are extrovert
A)This is similar to other methods of telling the future, such as the reading of coffee grounds
B)Your life line, your head line and your heart line are some of the important lines in palmistry
C)To find your fate line, study your writing hand and find the line running from the base up
D)The length, depth and direction of the lines on your hand all provide information about you
E)Whether this is true or not is arguable, but studying the lines on your hand can be enjoyable

148-…………. . This instrument breaks down the light in a star into its component colours. Each colour represents one element that has become incandescent; that is, it has become so hot that it gives off light. Through the use of the spectroscope, it has been found that stars, including the Sun, have 66 of the 92 elements found on the Earth.
A)in this respect, stars differ from the moon and planets, which shine only by reflecting the Sun's light
B)Telescopes and sensitive photographic plates show that there are many millions of stars
C)The composition of the Sun, as well as that of other stars, is determined by means of a spectroscope
D)Because these elements have been heated to incandescence, stars are said to be self-luminous
E)In addition to the 92 naturally-occurring elements, twenty others have been produced in laboratories

149-………… . Instead, it ended in tragedy just 27 minutes after the chartered commuter plane took off from Montreal's Dorval Airport on June 18. By the time the plane came to a fiery halt after an emergency landing at Mirabel Airport, there appeared little the rescue workers could do. Although fire-fighters managed to put out the flames, all 11 people on board died.
A)It was to have been a routine flight from Montreal to Peterborough for a group of engineers
B)Nine minutes alter take-off, the pilot Jean Provencher, radioed air traffic with engine trouble
C)What is now clear is that the passengers and crew of Flight 420 faced a truly horrible ordeal
D)It was the worst aeroplane crash in Canada since 1989, when 24 people died in Dryden, Ontario
E)The pilot reported ten minutes later that the plane's left engine had suddenly burst into flame

150-Last year, when be was passing through a crisis, my Uncle Ben showed me a cartoon by Charles Addams. ……….. . I didn't feel like analysing the carton. He insisted. He talked about it with such enthusiastic interest that I felt like having the thing framed for his birthday. Hang it on the wall and be done with it. I thought.
A)I was looking forward to visiting him again sometime
B)Uncle had been having a lot of problems since his wife had died in an accident at work
C)My uncle was none other than Benjamin Crader, the world famous botanist
D)What he meant was that I had been born and had grown up in France, outside Paris
E)It was an ordinary cartoon, good for a smile, but Uncle wanted to discuss it in depth

151-Six times as many young people kill themselves in Canada's North-western territories than in the rest of the country. However, youth suicide was almost unknown until the 197Os. There is a reasonable explanation as to the causes of this increase. The majority of people who live in this sparsely populated province are of either Inuit Eskimo or Dene Indian descent. ................... . They are now living in permanent settlements, jobs are scarce and the sense of worthlessness which youngsters feel all too often leads to depression.
A)In Inuit society, the elderly might wander off to save their families from the burden of caring for them
B)Although this people of the north are widely called Eskimos, the name they use for themselves is Inuit
C)The premier's brother committed suicide in October 1979, after being sent to prison for theft
D)After four Inuit boys killed themselves within 3 months in 1988, volunteers set up a crisis line
E)The changes these traditionally nomadic people have had to face has caused huge social disruption

152-……….. . Indeed, in 1783, volcanic eruptions destroyed nearly 9000 lives - an overwhelming disaster. The largest volcano in the country, Hekla, in the south, has made the nearby countryside a desert, owing to the dust and boiling lava that it hurls out from time to time. Its last great eruption occurred in 1845.
A)Iceland's active volcanoes have always been a threat
B)Iceland's natural wonders include geysers and hot springs
C)Around the coast of Iceland, there are many islands
D)Most volcanoes have a conical shape and some form islands
E)A volcano is a mountain formed by the eruption of lava

153-The map of the London Underground, which can be seen on every train, on all stations, on the back of the London A-Z guide, on tea cloths on sale at the London Transport Museum, on posters, in diaries and in various other places, has been called a model of its kind, a work of art. ………… . They paid him £5.25 for it.
A)It represents the Underground as a geometric grid, and is not done accurately to scale
B)The tube lines do not, of course, lie at right angles to each other like Manhattan's streets
C)It was designed by Henry Beck and first used by London Transport on posters in 1933
D)It has been reproduced in millions and served as a model for metro maps all over the world
E)London's famous Victoria Station is named after Queen Victoria

154-……. . From there, waves of these Indo-European tribes began to wander southeast into Iran and India, southwest to the Balkans and western Europe and northwards to Scandinavia. Wherever they went, the Indo-Europeans assimilated with the local culture, although their language came to play an important role.
A)The ancient Indian Veda scriptures and Greek philosophy are written in related languages
B)By Indo-Europeans, we mean all the nations and cultures that use Indo-European languages
C)English and Hindi are both Indo-European languages, while neither Turkish nor Finnish are
D)About 49000 years ago, the Indo-Europeans lived in areas bordering the Black and Caspian Seas
E)The culture of the Indo-Europeans was influenced most of all by their belief in many gods


Answer Key

1C 2E 3A 4C 5D 6A 7E 8B 9C 10D 11E 12B 13D 14E 15C 16B 17B 18E 19C 20D 21E 22B 23C 24C 25D 26E 27E 28A 29E 30D 31B 32B 33A 34C 35B 36D 37A 38E 39B 40B 41E 42E 43B 44A 45D 46E 47D 48E 49A 50B 51E 52C 53E 54D 55B 56A 57C 58C 59E 60B 61D 62C 63B 64A 65B 66C 67D 68B 69E 70A 71C 72C 73B 74E 75D 76E 77D 78C 79E 80B 81C 82A 83A 84D 85E 86E 87D 88B 89B 90D 91E 92B 93A 94A 95C 96A 97C 98D 99E 100B 101E 102C 103B 104E 105A 106C 107A 108A 109B 110D 111B 112B 113E 114C 115A 116D 117D 118B 119D 120C 121A 122B 123D 12DA 125D 126C 127A 128D 129D 130B 131A 132D 133C 134E 135D 136B 137E 138A 139C 140D 141B 142E 143D 144B 145A 146D 147C 148C 149A 150E 151E 152A 153C 154D


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